Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Valuing FreedomsSen's Capability Approach and Poverty Reduction$

Sabina Alkire

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780199245796

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: April 2004

DOI: 10.1093/0199245797.001.0001

Show Summary Details

(p.299) References

(p.299) References

Source:
Valuing Freedoms
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Afxentiou, Panayiotis C. 1990. ‘Basic Needs: A Survey of the Literature’. Canadian Journal of Development Studies. 11/2: 241–57.

Akerlof, George, and Rachel Kranton. 2000. ‘Economics and Identity’. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 115/3: 715–53.

Alderfer, C. D. 1969. ‘An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs’. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 4: 142–75.

Alkire, Sabina. 1997. ‘Impact Assessment: Oxfam vs Poverty’. Mimeo manual.

—— 2001. ‘The Basic Dimensions of Human Flourishing: A Comparison of Accounts’. In Biggar and Black 2001.

—— and Rufus Black. 1997. ‘A Practical Reasoning Theory of Development Ethics: Furthering the Capabilities Approach’. Journal of International Development. 9/2: 263–79.

—— and Severine Deneulin. 2000. ‘Individual Motivation, its Nature, Determinants and Consequences for within Group Behaviour’. WIDER Working Papers, No. 184. United Nations University.

Allardt, E. 1993. ‘Having, Loving, Being: An Alternative to the Swedish Model of Welfare Research’. In Nussbaum and Sen 1993: 88–94.

Alston, L. J., T. Eggertsson, and D. North, eds. 1996. Empirical Studies in Institutional Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Aman, K., ed. 1991. Ethical Principles for Development: Needs, Capabilities or Rights. Montclair State, NJ: Institute for Critical Thinking.

Anand, S., and C. Harris. 1994. ‘Choosing a Welfare Indicator’. American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings. 84/2: 226–49.

—— and M. Ravallion. 1993. ‘Development in Poor Countries: On the Role of Private Incomes and Public Services’. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 7/1: 113–50.

—— and Amartya Sen. 1997. ‘Concepts of Human Development and Poverty: A Multidimensional Perspective’. In Poverty and Human Development. Human Development Papers 1997. Human Development Report Office, the United Nations Development Programme, New York.

Andrews, Frank M., and Stephen B. Withey. 1976. Social Indicators of Well‐Being: Americans' Perceptions of Life Quality. New York: Plenum Press.

Antony, Louise M. 2000. ‘Natures and Norms’. Ethics. 111: 8–36.

Apffel‐Marglin, F., and S. Marglin. 1990. Dominating Knowledge: Development, Culture, and Resistance. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— —— 1996. Decolonizing Knowledge: From Development to Dialogue. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Argyle, Michael, and Maryanne Martin. 1991. ‘The Psychological Causes of Happiness’. In Argyle et al. 1991.

—— F. Strack, and N. Schwartz. 1991. Subjective Well‐being: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

(p.300) Aristotle. 1980. The Nicomachean Ethics, ed. J. L. Ackrill, W. D. Ross, and J. O. Urmson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arneson, Richard J. 1989. ‘Equality and Equal Opportunity for Welfare’. Philosophical Studies. 56: 77–93.

—— 2000. ‘Perfectionism and Politics’. Ethics. 111: 37–63.

Arrow, Kenneth J. 1995. ‘Returns to Scale, Information and Economic Growth’. In B. H. Koo and D. H. Perkins, eds. Social Capability and Long Term Economic Growth. New York: St Martin's Press. 11–18.

—— 1997. ‘Invaluable Goods’. Journal of Economic Literature. 35: 757–65.

—— A. K. Sen, and K. Suzumura. 1997. Social Choice Reexamined. i and ii. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Axelrod, L. J. 1994. ‘Balancing Personal Needs with Environmental Preservation: Identifying the Values that Guide Decisions in Ecological Dilemmas’. Journal of Social Issues. 50/3: 85–104.

Baker, Judy L. 2000. Evaluating the Impacts of Development Projects on Poverty: A Handbook for Practitioners. Washington: World Bank.

Balestrino, Alessandro. 1996. ‘A Note on Functioning‐Poverty in Affluent Societies’. Politeia. 12/43–4: 97–106.

Bamberger, Michael. 1988. ‘The Role of Community Participation in Development Planning and Project Management: Report of a Workshop on Community Participation held in Washington D. C., September 22–25, 1986’. EDI Policy Seminar Report. 13. The World Bank.

—— , ed. 2000. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Development Projects. Washington: World Bank.

Bangura, Yusuf. 1995. ‘The Search for Identity: Ethnicity, Religion and Political Violence’. UNRISD Occasional Paper, No. 6. World Summit for Social Development.

Banuri, Tariq. 1990a. ‘Development and the Politics of Knowledge: A Critical Interpretation of the Social Role of Modernization Theories in the Development of the Third World’. In Apffel‐Marglin and Marglin 1990.

—— 1990b. ‘Modernization and its Discontents: A Cultural Perspective on the Theories of Development’. In Apffel‐Marglin and Marglin 1990.

Barber, Benjamin. 1995. Jihad versus McWorld. New York: Times Books.

Basu, Kaushik. 1987. ‘Achievement, Capabilities, and the Concept of Well‐Being’. Social Choice and Welfare. 4: 69–76.

—— P. Pattanaik, and K. Suzumura, eds. 1995. Choice, Welfare, and Development: A Festschrift in Honour of Amartya K. Sen. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Bay, Christian. 1968. ‘Needs, Wants and Political Legitimacy’. Canadian Journal of Political Science. 1: 241–60.

Beauchamp, Tom, and James Childress. 1994. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Becker, G. 1996. Accounting for Tastes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Beitz, C. R. 1986. ‘Amartya Sen's Resources, Values and Development’. Economics and Philosophy, 2.

Bell, D. E., H. Raiffa, and A. Tversky. 1988. Decision‐Making: Descriptive, Normative, and Prescriptive Interactions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bell, Simon. 1994. ‘Methods and Mindsets: Towards an Understanding of the Tyranny of Methodology’. Public Administration. 14: 323–38.

Belli, Pedro, Jack Anderson, Howard Barnum, John Dixon, and Jee‐Peng Tan. 2001. Economic Analysis of Investment Operations: Analytical Tools and Practical Applications. Washington: The World Bank.

Beteille, Andre. 1993. ‘Amartya Sen's Utopia’. Economic and Political Weekly. 17 Apr.: 753–6.

(p.301) Bhatnagar, Bhuvan, and Aubrey Williams. 1992. ‘Participatory Development and the World Bank’. World Bank Discussion Paper, No 183. Washington.

Biggar, Nigel, and Rufus Black, eds. 2001. The Revival of Natural Law: Philosophical, Theological and Ethical Responses to the Finnis‐Grisez School. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishers.

Bishop, John, John Formby, and W. James Smith. 1993. ‘International Comparisons of Welfare and Poverty: Dominance Orderings for Ten Countries’. Canadian Journal of Economics. 16/3: 707–26.

Biswas‐Diener, Robert, and Ed Diener. 2000. ‘Making the Best of a Bad Situation: Satisfaction in the Slums of Calcutta’. Social Indicators Research. 55/3: 329–52.

Black, Rufus. 1996. ‘Towards an Ecumenical Ethic: Reconciling the Work of Germain Grisez, Stanley Hauerwas and Oliver O'Donovan’. D. Phil. thesis. Magdalen College, Oxford.

Blackburn, James with Jeremy Holland, eds. 1998. Who Changes? Institutionalizing Participation in Development. London: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.

Blackwood, D. L. and R. G. Lynch. 1994. ‘The Measurement of Inequality and Poverty: A Policy Maker's Guide to the Literature’. World Development. 22/4: 567–78.

Blair, Harry. 2000. ‘Participation and Accountability at the Periphery: Democratic Local Governance in Six Countries’. World Development. 28/1: 21–39.

Bohman, James. 2000. Public Deliberation: Pluralism, Complexity, and Democracy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Bohnet, I. and Frey, B. S. 1994. ‘Direct Democratic Rules: The Role of Discussion’. Kyklos. 47: 341–54.

Bond, Michael Harris. 1988. ‘Finding Universal Dimensions of Individual Variation in Multi‐cultural Studies of Values: The Rokeach and Chinese Value Surveys’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 55/6: 1009–15.

Bond, Richard, and David Hulme. 1999. ‘Process Approaches to Development: Theory and Sri Lankan Practice’. World Development. 27/8: 1339–58.

Braithwaite, V. A., and H. G. Law. 1985. ‘Structure of Human Values: Testing the Adequacy of the Rokeach Value Survey’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 49/1: 250–63.

Braybrooke, David. 1987. Meeting Needs. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Brentano, Franz. 1973. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, trans. Antos C. Rancurello, D. B. Terrell, and Linda McAlister. New York: Humanities Press.

Burdge, Rabel. 1995. A Community Guide to Social Impact Assessment. Middleton, Wis.: Social Ecology Press.

—— et al. 1994. A Conceptual Approach to Social Impact Assessment. Middleton, Wis.: Social Ecology Press.

Burki, A. A., and Q. Abbas. 1991. ‘Earnings Functions in Pakistan's Urban Informal Sector: A Case Study’. The Pakistan Development Review. 30/4: 695–706.

—— and Ubaidullah, A. 1992. ‘Earnings, Training and Employment in Gujranwala's Urban Informal Sector: Evolution or Involution?’ Pakistan Economic and Social Review. 30/1: 49–66.

Carmen, Raff. 2000. ‘Prima Mangiare, Poi Filosofare’. Journal of International Development. 12: 1019–30.

Carvalho, Soniya, and Howard White. 1997. ‘Combining the Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Poverty Measurement and Analysis’. World Bank Technical Paper, No. 366.

Casini, L., and I. Bernetti. 1996. ‘Public Project Evaluation, Environment and Sen's Theory’. Politeia. 12/43–4: 55–78.

Cassen, Robert. 1986. Does Aid Work? Oxford: Clarendon Press.

(p.302) Cernea, Michael M. 1982. ‘Indigenous Anthropologists and Development‐Oriented Anthropology’. In H. Fahim, ed. Indigenous Anthropology in Non‐Western Countries. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

—— ed. 1991. Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Development. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— and Ayse Kudat, eds. 1997. ‘Social Assessments for Better Development: Case Studies in Russia and Central Asia’. Environmentally Sustainable Development Studies and Monographs Series. 16. The World Bank.

Chakraborty, Achin. 1995. ‘The Concept and Measurement of the Standard of Living’. Ph.D. Thesis. University of California at Riverside.

—— 1996. ‘On the Possibility of a Weighting System for Functionings’. Centre for Development Studies, Working Paper, No. 270. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

—— 1998. ‘The Irrelevance of Methodology and the Art of the Possible: Reading Sen and Hirschman’. Centre for Development Studies, Working Paper, No. 286. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Chambers, Robert. 1992. ‘Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory’. IDS Discussion Paper. 311.

—— 1993. Challenging the Professions: Frontiers for Rural Development. London: Intermediate Technology.

—— 1994a. ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): Challenges, Potentials and Paradigm’. World Development. 22/1: 1437–54.

—— 1994b. ‘The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal’. World Development. 22/7: 953–69.

—— 1994c. ‘Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): Analysis of Experience’. World Development 22/9: 1253–68.

—— 1994d. ‘All Power Deceives’. IDS Bulletin. 25/2

—— 1995. ‘Poverty and Livelihoods: Whose Reality Counts?’ IDS Discussion Paper. 347.

—— 1997. Whose Reality Counts?: Putting the First Last. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Chang, Ruth, ed. 1997. Incommensurability, Incomparability, and Practical Reason. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Charlesworth, Hilary. 2000. ‘Martha Nussbaum's Feminist Internationalism’. Ethics. 111: 64–78.

Chenery, Hollis. 1974. Redistribution with Growth: Policies to Improve Income Distribution in Developing Countries in the Context of Economic Growth. A joint study by the World Bank's Development Research Center and the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chiappero‐Martinetti, Enrica. 1994. ‘A New Approach to Evaluation of Well‐Being and Poverty by Fuzzy Set Theory’. Il Giornale degli economisti e annali di economia. 7–9.

—— 1996. ‘Standard of Living Evaluation based on Sen's Approach: Some Methodological Questions’. Politeia. 12/43–4: 47–53.

Chinese Culture Connection. 1987. ‘Chinese Values and the Search for Culture‐Free Dimensions of Culture’. Journal of Cross‐Cultural Psychology. 18: 143–64.

Christopher, John Chambers. 1999. ‘Situating Psychological Well‐Being: Exploring the Cultural Roots of Its Theory and Research’. Journal of Counseling and Development. 77 (Spring): 141–52.

—— 1995. ‘A Poverty‐Oriented Cost‐Benefit Approach to the Analysis of Development Projects’. World Development. 23/4: 577–92.

Coase, R. 1960. ‘The Problem of Social Cost’. Journal of Law and Economics. 3: 1–44.

(p.303) Cohen, G. A. 1993. ‘Amartya Sen's Unequal World’. Economic and Political Weekly. Oct. 2: 2156–60.

Cook, K. S., and M. Levi. 1990. The Limits of Rationality. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Cooke, Bill, and Uma Kothari. 2001. Participation: The New Tyranny? London: Zed Books.

Corbett, Jane, and Frances Stewart. 1994. ‘Putting Gender into Cost Benefit Analysis’. Background paper for the 1995 Human Development Report.

Corbridge, S. 1993. ‘Ethics in Development Studies: the Example of Debt’. In F. Schuurman, ed. Beyond the Impasse: New Directions in Development Theory. London: Zed Books. 123–39.

Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, Richard Jolly, and Frances Stewart, eds. 1987. Adjustment with a Human Face: Protecting the Vulnerable and Promoting Growth. i. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cox, James C. 1997. ‘On Testing the Utility Hypothesis’. Economic Journal. 107 (July): 1054–78.

Crocker, David A. 1991. ‘Toward Development Ethics’. World Development. 19/5: 457–83.

—— 1992. ‘Functioning and Capability: The Foundations of Sen's and Nussbaum's Development Ethic’. Political Theory. 20/4: 584–612.

—— 1995. ‘Functioning and Capability: The Foundations of Sen's and Nussbaum's Development Ethic, Part 2’. In Nussbaum and Glover 1995: 153–99.

—— and Toby Linden. 1998. Ethics of Consumption: The Good Life, Justice and Global Stewardship. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.

Crosswell, Michael J. 1981. ‘Basic Human Needs: A Development Planning Approach’. In Danny M. Leipziger, ed. Basic Needs and Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain.

Crush, Jonathan. 1995. Power of Development. London: Routledge.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1997a. ‘Happiness and Creativity: Going with the Flow’. Futurist. Sept–Oct.: 8–12.

—— 1997b. ‘Finding Flow’. Psychology Today. July–Aug.: 46–8, 70–1.

Cummins, Robert A. 1996. ‘The Domains of Life Satisfaction: An Attempt to Order Chaos’. Social Indicators Research. 38/3: 303–28.

Curry, S. and J. Weiss. 1993. Project Analysis in Developing Countries. London: Macmillan.

Daniels, Norman. 1990. ‘Equality of What: Welfare, Resources or Capabilities?’ Philosophy of Phenomenological Research. 50: 273–96.

Dasgupta, Partha. 1990. ‘Well‐Being in Poor Countries’. Economic and Political Weekly. 25 (4 Aug.): 1713–20.

—— 1993. An Inquiry into Well‐Being and Destitution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— and Karl‐Göran Mäler. 1997. The Environment and Emerging Development Issues. i and ii. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— and Martin Weale. 1992. ‘On Measuring the Quality of Life’. World Development. 20/1: 119–31.

Davies, James C. 1963. Human Nature in Politics. New York: Wiley.

Davis, Shelton H. and Lars T. Soeftestad. 1995. ‘Participation and Indigenous Peoples’. Social Development Papers No. 9. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Davitt, T. E. 1968. ‘The Basic Values in Law: A Study of the Ethico‐legal Implications of Psychology and Anthropology’. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 58/5.

de Kadt, Emanuel, 1994. ‘Getting and Using Knowledge about the Poor? IDS Bulletin. 125/2: 100–9.

Deneulin, Severine. Forthcoming. ‘Paternalism, Perfectionism, and Liberalism, in Sen's and Nussbaum's Capability Approach’. Manuscript.

(p.304) Desai, Meghnad. 1990. ‘Poverty and Capability: Towards an Empirically Implementable Measure’. Suntory‐Toyota International Centre Discussion Paper, No. 27. London School of Economics Development Economics Research Programme.

—— 1994a. ‘Measuring Political Freedom’. The Centre for the Study of Global Governance. Discussion Paper No. 10.

—— 1994b. ‘The Measurement Problem in Economics’. Scottish Journal of Political Economy. 41/1: 34–42.

Devarajan, Shanta, Lyn Squire, and Sethaput Narueput. 1996. ‘Project Appraisal at the World Bank’. In Kirkpatrick and Weiss 1996: 35–53.

Devereux, John A. 1993. ‘Competence to Consent to Medical Treatment in England and Australia’. D. Phil. Thesis. University of Oxford.

Dia, Mamadou, ed. 1996. Africa's Management in the 1990s and Beyond: Reconciling Indigenous and Transplanted Institutions. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Diener, Ed and Robert Biswas‐Diener. 1999. ‘Income and Subjective Well‐being: Will Money Make us Happy’. Draft.

—— —— 2000. ‘New Directions in Subjective Well‐Being Research: The Cutting Edge’. Draft.

—— and M. Diener. 1995. ‘Cross‐Cultural Correlates of Life Satisfaction and Self‐Esteem’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 68: 653–63.

—— —— and C. Diener. 1995. ‘Factors Predicting the Subjective Well‐Being of Nations’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 69: 851–64.

—— and E. M. Suh, eds. 2000. Culture and Subjective Well‐Being. Cambridge: MIT Press.

DiMaggio, Paul. 1994. ‘Culture and Economy’. Chapter 2 in Neil Smelser and Richard Svedberg, eds. The Handbook of Economic Sociology. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 27–57.

Dinwiddy, C., and F. Teal. 1996. Principles of Cost‐Benefit Analysis for Developing Countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dobb, Maurice. 1973. Theories of Value and Distribution since Adam Smith: Ideology and Economic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dore, Ronald. 1994. ‘Why Visiting Sociologists Fail’. Sixth Dudley Seers Memorial Lecture. IDS Discussion Paper. 341.

Dörner, Dietrich. 1996. The Logic of Failure. New York: Free Press.

Doyal, Len and Ian Gough. 1991. A Theory of Human Need. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

—— —— 1993. ‘Need Satisfaction as a Measure of Human Welfare’. In Wolfgang Blass and John Foster, eds. Mixed Economies in Europe. Brookfield, Vt.: Edward Elgar.

Drèze, Jean. 1994. ‘Economic Development, Public Action and Social Progress’. Canadian Journal of Development Studies. 15/3: 329–46.

—— and Amartya Sen. 1989. Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— —— eds. 1990. The Political Economy of Hunger. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— —— 1991. ‘Public Action for Social Security: Foundations and Strategy’. In Ehtisham Ahmad, Jean Drèze, John Hills, and Amartya Sen, eds. Social Security in Developing Countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— —— 1995. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

—— —— eds. 1997. Indian Development: Selected Regional Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.

Duch, Raymond M., and Michael A. Taylor. 1993. ‘Postmaterialism and the Economic Condition’. American Journal of Political Science. 37: 747–89.

(p.305) Dupuit, J. 1844. ‘On the Measurement of Utility of Public Works’, translated from the French in International Economic Papers. 2. 1952.

Dworkin, Ronald. 1986. Law's Empire. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Eade, D., and Williams, S. 1995. The Oxfam Handbook of Development and Relief. Oxford: Oxfam Publications.

Edwards, Michael, and David Hulme, eds. 1992. Making a Difference: NGOs and Development in a Changing World. London: Earthscan.

—— —— eds. 1995. Non‐governmental Organizations' Performance and Accountability: Beyond the Magic Bullet. London: Earthscan.

Ellerman, David. Forthcoming. ‘Helping Others to Help Themselves’. Manuscript.

Ellerman, David. 2001. ‘Helping People Help Themselves: Autonomy‐Compatible Assistance’. In Nagy Hanna and Robert Picciotto, eds. The New Development Compact: Toward a Comprehensive Strategy. Washington: The World Bank.

Ensminger, J. 1992. Making the Market: The Institutional Transformation of an African Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Escobar, Arturo. 1984–5. ‘Discourse and Power in Development: Michel Foucault and the Relevance of his Work to the Third World’. Alternatives. 10: 377–400.

—— —— 1995. Encountering Development. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Esman, M. J., and Uphoff, N. T. 1984. Local Organizations: Intermediaries in Rural Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Eunkook, S., E. Diener, S. Oishi, and H. Triandis. 1998. ‘The Shifting Basis of Life Satisfaction Judgements across Cultures: Emotions versus Norms’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 74/2: 482–93.

Fabel, A. J. 1994. ‘Environmental Ethics and the Question of Cosmic Purpose’. Environmental Ethics. 16/3: 303–14.

Farina, Francesco, F. Hahn, and S. Vannucci, eds. 1996. Ethics, Rationality and Economic Behaviour. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Fields, Gary S. 1994. ‘Poverty and Income Distribution: Data for Measuring Poverty and Inequality Changes in the Developing Countries’. Journal of Development Economics. 44: 87–102.

Finnis, John. 1980. Natural Law and Natural Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— 1983. The Fundamentals of Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— 1987. ‘Legal Enforcement of “Duties to Oneself”: Kant v. neo‐Kantians’. Columbia Law Review. 87: 433–56.

—— 1990a. ‘Allocating Risks and Suffering: Some Hidden Traps’. Cleveland State Law Review. 38/1–2: 193–207.

—— 1990b. ‘Concluding Reflections’. Cleveland State Law Review. 38/1–2: 231–50.

—— 1991. Moral Absolutes: Tradition, Revision and Truth. Washington: Catholic University Press of America.

—— 1992a. ‘Natural Law and Legal Reasoning’. In George 1992.

—— 1992b. ‘Economics, Justice and the Value of Life: Concluding Remarks’. In L. Gormally. The Dependent Elderly: Autonomy, Justice and Quality of Care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 189–98.

—— 1994. ‘Liberalism and Natural Law Theory’. Mercer Law Review. 45: 687–704.

—— 1995a. ‘Law, Morality, and “Sexual Orientation” ’. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy. 9: 11–39.

—— 1995b. ‘Unjust Laws in a Democratic Society: Some Philosophical and Theological Reflections’. Notre Dame Law Review. 71/4: 595–604.

(p.306) Finnis, John. 1996. ‘Is Natural Law Theory Compatible with Limited Government?’ In Robert P. George, ed. Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 1–26.

—— 1997. ‘Commensuration and Public Reason’. In Chang 1997: 215–33.

—— 1998a. Aquinas: Moral, Political, and Legal Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— 1998b. ‘Natural Law and the Ethics of Discourse’. American Journal of Jurisprudence. 43: 53–74.

—— 1999. ‘Natural Law and the Ethics of Discourse’. Ratio Juris. 12/4: 354–73.

—— J. Boyle, and G. Grisez. 1987. Nuclear Deterrence, Morality, and Realism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1987.

Finsterbusch, K., J. Ingersoll, and L. Llewellyn, eds. 1990. Methods for Social Analysis in Developing Countries. Social Impact Assessment Series, No. 17. Oxford: Westview Press.

Fisher, Anthony. 1994. ‘The Principles of Distributive Justice considered with respect to the Allocation of Health Care’. D. Phil. Thesis. Blackfriars. University of Oxford.

Fitzgerald, Ross, ed. 1977. Human Needs and Politics. Sydney: Pergamon.

Forester, John. 1999. The Deliberative Practitioner: Engaging Participatory Planning Processes. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Foster, James. 1994. ‘Normative Measurement: Is Theory Relevant?’ American Economic Review. 84/2: 365–70.

Frank, Robert H. 1997. ‘The Frame of Reference as a Public Good’. Economic Journal. 107: 1832–47.

Freudenburg and Keaging. 1982. ‘Increasing the Impact of Sociology on Social Impact Assessment: Toward Ending the Inattention’. The American Sociologist. 17: 71–80.

Freudenburg and Olsen. 1983. Journal of the Community Development Society. 14/2: 67–82.

Frey, Bruno. 1997. Not Just for Money: An Economic Theory of Personal Motivation. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.

Fromm, Erich. 1949. Man for Himself, An Enquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

—— 1956. The Sane Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Fukuyama, Francis. 1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York: Free Press.

Galtung, Johan. 1980. The True Worlds: A Transnational Perspective. New York: Free Press.

—— 1994. Human Rights in Another Key. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Gasper, Des. 1996a. ‘Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women's Rights, and Western Theories’. Development and Change. 27: 627–61.

—— 1996b. ‘Needs and Basic Needs: A Clarification of Meanings, Levels and Different Streams of Work’. Institute of Social Studies Working Paper, No. 210. The Hague: Institute of Social Studies.

—— 1997. ‘Sen's Capability Approach and Nussbaum's Capabilities Ethic’. Journal of International Development. 9/2: 281–302.

—— 2000a. ‘Development as Freedom: Taking Economics Beyond Commodities—the Cautious Boldness of Amartya Sen’. Journal of International Development. 12: 989–1001.

—— 2000b. ‘Evaluating the “Logical Framework Approach”—Towards Learning‐Oriented Development Evaluation’. Public Administration and Development. 20/1: 17–28.

—— 2000c. ‘Logical Frameworks: Problems and Potentials’. Manuscript.

Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.

—— 1993. Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. London: Fontana Press.

(p.307) George, Robert P. 1988. ‘Recent Criticism of Natural Law Theory’. University of Chicago Law Review. 55: 1371–1427.

—— 1989. ‘Human Flourishing as a Criterion of Morality: A Critique of Perry's Naturalism’. Tulane Law Review. 63: 1455–74.

—— ed. 1992. Natural Law Theory: Contemporary Essays. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— 1993. Making Men Moral. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gerrard, Bill, ed. 1993. The Economics of Rationality. London: Routledge.

Gezelius, H., and D. Millwood. 1988. ‘NGOs in Development and Participation in Practice: An Initial Inquiry’. Popular Participation Programme. Working Paper No. 3. University of Stockholm.

Ghai, Dharam. 1988. ‘Participatory Development: Some Perspectives from Grass‐Roots experiences’. UNRISD Discussion Paper, No. 5.

—— ed. 1994. Development and Environment: Sustaining People and Nature. London: Basil Blackwell.

—— A. R. Khan, E. L. H. Lee, and T. Alfthan. 1977. The Basic‐Needs Approach to Development: Some Issues Regarding Concepts and Methodology. Geneva: ILO.

Ginsberg, Morris. 1953. ‘On the Diversity of Morals: The Huxley Memorial Lecture 1953’. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 83/2.

Goetz, Anne Marie, and David O'Brien. 1995. ‘Governing for the Common Wealth? The World Bank's Approach to Poverty and Governance’. IDS Bulletin. 26/2: 17–26.

Gough, Ian, and Theo Thomas. 1994. ‘Need Satisfaction and Welfare Outcomes: Theory and Explanation’. Social Policy & Administration. 28/1: 33–56.

Gould, Jeremy. 1997. Localizing Modernity: Action, Interests & Association in Rural Zambia. Helsinki: Suomen Antropologinen Seura (TAFAS 40).

Goulet, Denis. 1992. ‘Development: Creator and Destroyer of Values’. World Development. 20/3: 467–75.

—— 1995. Development Ethics: A Guide to Theory and Practice. London: Zed Books.

Granaglia, Elena. 1996. ‘Two Questions to Amartya Sen’. Politeia. 43–4: 31–5.

Granato, J., Ronald Inglehart, and D. Leblang. 1996a. ‘Cultural Values, Stable Democracy, and Economic Development: A Reply’. American Political Science Review. 40/3: 680–96.

—— —— —— 1996b. ‘The Effect of Cultural Values on Economic Development: Theory, Hypotheses, and Some Empirical Tests’. American Political Science Review. 40/3: 607–31.

Greif, Avner. 1994. ‘Cultural Beliefs and the Organization of Society: A Historical and Theoretical Reflection of Collectivist and Individualist Societies’. Journal of Political Economy. 102/5: 912–50.

—— 1998. ‘Historical and Comparative Institutional Analysis’. American Economic Review. 88/2: 80–84.

Griffin, James. 1986. Well‐Being: Its Meaning, Measurement and Moral Importance. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— 1991. ‘Mixing Values’. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (suppl.). vol. 65: 101–18.

Griffin, James. 1996. Value Judgement: Improving our Ethical Beliefs. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Griffin, Keith. 1989. Alternative Strategies for Economic Development. London: Macmillan.

—— and Terry McKinley. 1994. Implementing a Human Development Strategy. London: Macmillan.

Grisez, Germain. 1967. ‘Methods of Ethical Inquiry’. Proceeds of the American Catholic Philosophical Association. 41: 160–8.

—— 1975. Beyond the New Theism: A Philosophy of Religion. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.

(p.308) Grisez, Germain. 1978. ‘Against Consequentialism’. American Journal of Jurisprudence. 23: 21–72.

—— 1983. The Way of the Lord Jesus: Christian Moral Principles. i. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press.

—— 1993. The Way of the Lord Jesus: Living a Christian Life. ii. Quincy, Il.: Franciscan Herald Press.

—— 1997. The Way of the Lord Jesus: Difficult Moral Questions. iii. Quincy, Il: Franciscan Herald Press.

—— and Joseph Boyle. 1979. Life and Death with Liberty and Justice. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.

—— —— and John Finnis. 1987. ‘Practical Principles, Moral Truth and Ultimate Ends’. American Journal of Jurisprudence. 32: 99–151.

Hacking, Ian. 1996. ‘In Pursuit of Fairness’. New York Review. 19 Sept.: 40–3.

Haq, Mahbubul. 1995. Reflections on Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

—— and Khadija Haq. 1998. Human Development in South Asia. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Harberger, Arnold C. 1978, ‘On the Use of Distributional Weights in Social Cost‐Benefit Analysis’. Journal of Political Economy. 82.2, part 11, S87–S120.

Harris, J., and De Renzio, P. 1997. ‘Missing Link or Analytically Missing: The Concept of Social Capital’. Journal of International Development. 9/7: 919–37.

Harrison, Lawrence E. 1983. Underdevelopment is a State of Mind: The Latin American Case. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America/Madison Books.

—— and Samuel, P. Huntington, eds. 2000. Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. New York: Basic Books.

Hausman, Daniel M., and Michael S. McPherson. 1993. ‘Why Economists Should Take Ethics Seriously’. In D. Bos, ed. Economics in a Changing World. iii. New York: St Martin's Press.

—— —— 1996. Economics Analysis and Moral Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heller, Agnes. 1976. The Theory of Need in Marx. London: Allison and Busby.

Hentschel, Jesko. 1999. ‘Contextuality and Data Collection Methods: A Framework and Application to Health Service Utilisation’. The Journal of Development Studies. 35: 64–94.

Hettne, Björn. 1995. Development Theory and the Three Worlds: Towards an International Political Economy of Development. 2nd edn. Essex: Longman Group Ltd.

Hicks, John. 1983. Classics and Moderns: Collected Essays on Economic Theory, Volume III. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Hicks, Norman, and Paul Streeten. 1979. ‘Indicators of Development: The Search for a Basic Needs Yardstick’. World Development. 7: 567–80.

Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work‐Related Values. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Press.

Holland, Jeremy with James Blackburn, eds. 1998. Whose Voice? Participatory Research and Policy Change. London: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.

Hopkins, Michael. 1991. ‘Human Development Revisited: A New UNDP Report’. World Development. 19/10: 1469–73.

Huntington, Samuel. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Illich, Evan. 1978. Toward a History of Needs. New York: Pantheon Press.

Inglehart, Ronald. 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

(p.309) —— 2000. ‘Globalization and Postmodern Values’. The Washington Quarterly. 23/1: 215–28.

—— and Wayne Baker. 2000. ‘Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values’. American Sociological Review. 65: 19–51.

Insham, Jonathan, Deepa Narayan, and Lant Pritchett. 1995. ‘Does Participation Improve Performance? Establishing Causality with Subjective Data’. The World Bank Economic Review. 9/3: 173–200.

International Labour Organization, 1976. Employment, Growth and Basic Needs. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

Jain, Pankaj. 1994. ‘Managing for Success: Lessons from Asian Development Programs’. World Development. 22/9: 1363–77.

James, J., and F. Stewart, 1981. ‘New Products: A Discussion of the Welfare Effects of the Introduction of New Products in Developing Countries’. Oxford Economic Papers. 81–107.

Jimenez, E. 1986. ‘The Public Subsidization of Education and Health in Developing Countries: A Review of Equity and Efficiency’. The World Bank Research Observer. 1: 111–29.

Jodha, N. S. 1988. ‘Poverty Debate in India: A Minority View’. Economic and Political Weekly. Nov.: 2421–8.

Kahneman, Daniel, Ed Diener, and Norbert Schwarz, eds. 1999. Well‐Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Kakwani, N. 1993. ‘Performance in Living Standards: An International Comparison’. Journal of Development Economics. 41: 307–36.

Kanbur, Ravi, ed. 2001. ‘Qual‐Quant: Qualitative and Quantitative Poverty Appraisal‐Complementarities, Tensions, and the Way Forward’. Manuscript. May.

Kaufmann, Daniel. 1991. ‘Determinants of the Productivity of Projects in Developing Countries: Evidence from 1,200 Projects’. Background paper for the World Development Report 1991. Mimeo.

Kennedy, Terence. 1992. ‘The Originality of John Finnis' Conception of the Natural Law’. In C. Curran and R. McCormick. Readings in Moral Theology No. 7. New York: Paulist Press. 124–38.

Kenny, Charles. 2000. ‘Subjective Wellbeing and Economic Growth in Developing Countries’. Draft.

Khan, Janbaz. 1990. ‘Social Impact Assessment: A Critique from the Perspective of the Third World Countries with Special Reference to the Construction of Chashma Right Bank Canal in the Dera Ismail Khan District of Pakistan’. The Journal of Development Studies, Peshawar. 10: 71–89.

Khan, Minhajuddin. 1995. ‘Participatory Approaches in Rural Development Planning in Pakistan’. Journal of Rural Development & Administration. 27/1.

Khan, Shahrukh R. 1993. ‘South Asia’. In King and Hill 1993.

—— and Mohammad Irfan. 1985. ‘Rates of Returns to Education and the Determinants of Earnings in Pakistan’. Pakistan Development Review. 24/3–4: 671–80.

Khwaja, Asim Ijaz. 2001. ‘Can Good Projects Succeed in Bad Communities? Collective Action in the Himalayas’. Paper presented at the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics. Washington DC. 2 May.

Kim, Aehyung, and Bruce Benton. 1995. ‘Cost Benefit Analysis of the Onchocerciasis Control Program’. World Bank Technical Paper, 282. The World Bank.

King, Elizabeth, and M. Anne Hill, eds. 1993. Women's Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits, and Policies. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Kirkpatrick, C. H., and John Weiss, eds. 1996. Cost Benefit Analysis and Project Appraisal in Developing Countries. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

(p.310) Klamer, Arjo. 1989. ‘A Conversation with Amartya Sen’. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 3/1: 135–50.

Klemisch‐Ahlert, Marlies. 1993. ‘Freedom of Choice: A Comparison of Different Rankings of Opportunity Sets’. Social Choice and Welfare. 10: 189–207.

Kluckhohn, Clyde. 1951. ‘Values and Value‐Orientations in the Theory of Action’. In Talcott Parsons and Edward Shils, eds. Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge, Mass: 388–433.

—— and A. L. Kroeber. 1963. Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. New York: Vintage Books. Originally published in 1952 Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 47/1 (1952). Harvard University.

Klugman, Jeni. 1994. ‘Decentralization: A Survey of Literature from a Human Development Perspective’. Human Development Report Office. Occasional Papers No. 13. UNDP.

Koh, Harold Hongju, and Ronald C. Slye, eds. 1999. Deliberative Democracy and Human Rights. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Korten, D. 1980. ‘Community Organization and Local Development: A Learning Process Approach’. Public Administration Review. 40: 480–512.

Krech, David, Richard S. Crutchfield, and Norman Livson. 1969. Elements of Psychology. 2nd edn. New York: Alfred Knopf.

Kuper, Adam. 1999. Culture: The Anthropologists' Account. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Kurien, P. A. 1994. ‘Non‐economic Bases of Economic Behavior: The Consumption, Investment and Exchange Patterns of Three Emigrant Communities in Kerala, India’. Development and Change. 25: 757–83.

Kynch, Jocelyn, and Amartya Sen. 1983. ‘Indian Women: Well‐being and Survival’. Cambridge Journal of Economics. 7: 363–80.

Lancaster, Kevin. 1971. A New Approach to Consumer Theory. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lane, Robert E. 1969. Political Thinking and Consciousness. Chicago: Markham Publishers.

Larson, James S. 1996. ‘The World Health Organisation's Definition of Health: Social versus Spiritual Health’. Social Indicators Research. 38/2: 181–92.

Lasswell, Harold D., and Allan R. Holmberg. 1969. ‘Toward a General Theory of Directed Value Accumulation and Institutional Development’. In Ralph Braibanti, ed. Political and Administrative Development. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. 354–99.

Layard, R., and S. Glaister. 1994. Cost‐Benefit Analysis. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leach, M., and J. Fairhead. 1994. ‘Natural Resource Management: The Reproduction and Use of Environmental Misinformation in Guinea's Forest‐Savanna Transition Zone’. IDS Bulletin. 25/2: 81–7.

Lederer, Karin, ed. 1980. Human Needs: A Contribution to the Current Debate. Cambridge, Mass.: Oelgeschlager, Gunn, and Hain.

Levy, S., and Guttman, L. 1974. Values and Attitudes of Israeli High School Youth. Jerusalem: Israel Institute of Applied Social Research.

Lewin, Shira B. 1996. ‘Economics and Psychology: Lessons For Our Own Day From the Early Twentieth Century’. Journal of Economic Literature. 34: 1293–323.

Lewis, W. Arthur. 1955. The Theory of Economic Growth. London: Allen & Unwin.

Lind, Niels C. 1992. ‘Some Thoughts on the Human Development Index’. Social Indicators Research. 27: 89–101.

Lindbeck, Assar, Sten Nyberg, and Jörgen W. Weibull. 1999. ‘Social Norms and Economic Incentives in the Welfare State’. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 114/1.

(p.311) Lipton, M., and R. Longhurst. 1989. New Seeds and Poor People. London: Unwin Hyman.

Lisk, Franklyn, ed. 1985. Popular Participation in Planning for Basic Needs. A study prepared for the ILO. Aldershot: Gower.

Lisska, Anthony J. 1996. Aquinas' Natural Law: An Analytical Reconstruction. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Little, I. M. D. 1957. A Critique of Welfare Economics. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— and J. A. Mirrlees. 1974. Project Appraisal and Planning for Developing Countries. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

—— —— 1994. ‘Project Appraisal and Planning Twenty Years On’. Reprinted in Layard, R. and S. Glaister 1994.

McGillivray, Mark. 1991. ‘The Human Development Index: Yet Another Redundant Composite Development Indicator?’ World Development. 19/10: 1461–8.

—— and Howard White. 1993. ‘Measuring Development: The UNDP's Human Development Index’. Journal of International Development. 5: 183–92.

MacIntyre, Alisdair. 1981. After Virtue. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.

McKinley, Terry. 1998. ‘Measuring the Contribution of Culture to Human Well‐Being: Cultural Indicators of Development’. In UNESCO 1998: 322–32.

McLean, I., and A. B. Unken. 1995. ‘What Is Social Choice?’ In I. McLean and A. B. Unken, trans. and eds. Classics of Social Choice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1–63.

Malan, Naude. 1999. ‘Participation in Research and Development at the Tshikonelo Agricultural Project, Northern Province’. Development Southern Africa. 16/3: 501–18.

Marc, Alexandre, Carol Graham, Mark Schacter, and Mary Schmidt. 1995. ‘Social Action Programs and Social Funds: A Review of Design and Implementation in Sub‐Saharan Africa’. World Bank Discussion Paper, 274. The World Bank.

Marcuse, Herbert. 1964. One Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. Boston: Beacon Press.

Marx, Karl. 1887. Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production. i, ed. S. Moore and E. Aveling, trans. F. Engels. London: Allen and Unwin. 1938.

—— 1943. ‘A Theory of Human Motivation’. Psychology Review. 50: 370–96.

—— 1948a. ‘ “Higher” and “Lower” Needs’. Journal of Psychology. 25: 433–6.

—— 1948b. ‘Some Theoretical Consequences of Basic Need Gratification’. Journal of Personality. 16: 402–16.

—— 1954. ‘The Instinctoid Nature of Basic Needs’. Journal of Personality. 22: 326–47.

—— 1956. ‘Criteria for Judging needs to be Instinctoid’. In M. R. Jones, ed. Human Motivation: A Symposium. Lincoln, Nebr.: Nebraska University Press. 33–48.

—— 1963. ‘Fusion of Facts and Values’. American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 23/2: 117–31.

—— ed. 1959. New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper and Row.

Max‐Neef, Manfred. 1989. ‘Human Scale Development: An Option for the Future’. Development Dialogue. 5–81.

—— 1992. From the Outside Looking In: Experiences in Barefoot Economics. London: Zed Press.

—— 1993. Human Scale Development: Conception, Application, and Further Reflections. London: Apex Press.

Michener, Victoria J. 1998. ‘The Participatory Approach: Contradition and Co‐option in Burkina Faso’. World Development. 26/12: 2105–18.

Moon, Bruce E. E. 1991. The Political Economy of Basic Human Needs. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

(p.312) Mosse, David. 1994. ‘Authority, Gender and Knowledge: Theoretical Reflections on the Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal’. Development and Change. 25: 497–526.

Mulgan, Richard. 2000. ‘Was Aristotle an “Aristotelian Social Democrat”?’ Ethics. 111: 79–101.

Munene, J., and S. H. Schwartz, eds. 2001. Cultural Values and Development in Uganda. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers.

—— —— G. Kibanja, and J. Kikooma. Forthcoming. Poverty and Moving Out of Poverty: The Role of Culture and Social Capital. Kampala: Fountain Publishers.

Munro, D. 1985. ‘A Free‐Format Values Inventory: Explorations with Zimbabwean Student Teachers’. South African Journal of Psychology. 15: 33–41.

Murphy, Mark. 2001. Natural Law and Practical Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Murray, Christopher, and L. C. Chen. 1992. ‘Understanding Morbidity Change, Population and Development Review. 18/3: 481–503.

Murray, H. A. 1938. Explorations in Personality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Myers, David G., and Ed Diener. 1995. Psychological Science. 6/1 (Jan.): 10–19.

—— —— 1997. ‘The Science of Happiness’. Futurist. Sept–Oct. 1–7.

Myrdal, Gunnar. 1968. Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.

Nandy, Ashish. 1994. ‘Culture, Voice and Development: A Primer for the Unsuspecting’. Thesis Eleven. 39: 1–18.

Narayan, Deepa. 1993. ‘Participatory Evaluation: Tools for Managing Change in Water and Sanitation’. World Bank Technical Paper, 207. The World Bank.

—— 1995. ‘Designing Community Based Development’. Environment Department Working Paper. 7. The World Bank.

—— with Raj Patel, Kai Schafft, Anne Rademacher, and Sarah Koch‐Schutte. 2000a. Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.

—— Robert Chambers, Meera K. Shah, and Patti Petesch. 2000b. Voices of the Poor: Crying Out for Change. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.

—— and Katrinka Ebbe. 1997. ‘Design of Social Funds: Participation, Demand Orientation and Local Organizational Capacity’. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 375. The World Bank.

Narayan‐Parker, Deepa, and Lant Pritchett. 1997. ‘Cents and Sociability: Household Income and Social Capital in Rural Tanzania’. Policy Research Working Paper. 1796. The World Bank Social Development and Development Research Group.

Nelson, N., and S. Wright, eds. 1995. Power and Participatory Development: Theory and Practice. London: IT Publications.

Ng, Yew‐Kwang. 1997. ‘A Case for Happiness, Cardinalism, and Interpersonal Comparability’. The Economic Journal. 107: 1848–58.

Nielsen, Kai. 1963. ‘On Human Needs and Moral Appraisals’. Inquiry. 6: 170–83.

—— 1969. ‘Morality and Needs’. In J. J. McIntosh and S. Coval, eds. The Business of Reason. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 186–206.

—— 1977. ‘True Needs, Rationality and Emancipation’. In Ross Fitzgerald. Human Needs and Politics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 142–56.

North, Douglass. 1989. ‘Institutions and Economic Growth: An Historical Introduction’. World Development. 17/9: 1319–32.

—— 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1993. ‘Institutions and Credible Commitment’. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics. 149: 11–23.

(p.313) Norton, Andrew, and Thomas Stephens. 1995. ‘Participation in Poverty Assessments’. Environment Department Papers Participation Series. 20. The World Bank.

Nozick, Richard. 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Nussbaum, Martha C. 1986. The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1988. ‘Nature, Function and Capability: Aristotle on Political Distribution’. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. 6, suppl. vol. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 145–84.

—— 1990a. ‘Aristotelian Social Democracy’. In Bruce Douglass, Gerald Mara, and Henry Richardson, eds. Liberalism and the Good. London: Routledge. 203–52.

—— 1990b. Love's Knowledge: Essays on Philosophy and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— 1992. ‘Human Functioning and Social Justice: In Defense of Aristotelian Essentialism’. Political Theory. 20/2: 202–46.

—— 1993. ‘Non‐relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach’. In Nussbaum and Sen 1993: 242–69.

—— 1994a. ‘Scepticism about Practical Reason in Literature and the Law’. Harvard Law Review. 10: 714–44.

—— 1994b. ‘Platonic Love and Colorado Law: The Relevance of Ancient Greek Norms to Modern Sexual Controversies’. Virginia Law Review. 80/7: 1515–651.

—— 1995a. ‘Aristotle on Human Nature and the Foundations of Ethics’. In J. Altham and R. Harrison, eds. World Mind and Ethics: Essays on the Ethical Philosophy of Bernard Williams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 86–131.

—— 1995b. ‘Human Capabilities, Female Human Being’. In Nussbaum and Glover 1995: 61–104.

—— 1995c. ‘Emotions and Women's Capabilities?’ In Nussbaum and Glover 1995: 360–95.

—— 1996. ‘Compassion—The Basic Social Emotion’. Social Philosophy and Policy. 13/1: 27–58.

—— 1997. ‘Flawed Foundations: The Philosophical Critique of (a Particular Type of) Economics’. University of Chicago Law Review. 1197–214.

—— 1998a. ‘Good as Discipline Good as Freedom’. In Crocker and Linden 1998.

—— 1998b. ‘Public Philosophy and International Feminism’. Ethics. 108/4: 762–96.

—— 2000a. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 2000b. ‘Aristotle, Politics, and Human Capabilities: A Response to Antony, Arneson, Charlesworth, and Mulgan’. Ethics. 111: 102–40.

—— 2000c. ‘The Costs of Tragedy: Some Moral Limits of Cost‐Benefit Analysis’. Journal of Legal Studies. 29: 1005–36.

—— and J. Glover, eds. 1995. Women, Culture and Development A Study of Human Capabilities. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— and A. Sen. 1989. ‘Internal Criticism and Indian Rationalist Traditions’. In M. Krausz, ed. Relativism, Interpretation and Confrontation. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press. 229–325.

—— —— eds. 1993. The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Oakley, Allen. 1994. Classical Economic Man: Human Agency and Methodology in the Political Economy of Adam Smith and J. S. Mill. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.

Oakley, P., and D. Marsden. 1984. Approaches to Participation in Rural Development. Geneva: ILO.

Oates, W. E., ed. 1992. The Economics of the Environment. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.

OECD. 1996. Shaping the 21st Century: The Contribution of Development Cooperation. Paris: OECD.

(p.314) Offer, Avner, ed. 1996. In Pursuit of the Quality of Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Okin, Susan Moller, Joshua Cohen, Matthew Howard, and Martha C. Nussbaum. 1999. Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Omkarnath, G. 1997. ‘Capabilities and the Process of Development’. Centre for Development Studies Working Paper, No. 275. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

O'Neill, Onora. 1996. Towards Justice and Virtue: A Constructive Account of Practical Reasoning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oostendorp, Remco. 1995. ‘Adam Smith, Social Norms and Economic Behavior’. Ph.D. Thesis. Harvard.

Orshansky, M. 1969. ‘How Poverty is Measured’. Monthly Labor Review.

Oswald, Andrew J. 1997. ‘Happiness and Economic Performance’. Economic Journal. 107: 1815–31.

Overseas Development Administration. 1995. A Guide to Social Analysis for Projects in Developing Countries. London: HMSO.

Oxfam Pakistan. 1996. ‘1995–1996 Annual Report’. Mimeo.

Packard, Vance. 1960. The Wastemaker. New York: D. McKay Co.

Pakistan, Government of. 1996. Economic Survey 1995–1996. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan.

Pattanaik, Prasanta. 1997. ‘Cultural Indicators of Well‐Being: Some Conceptual Issues’. UNRISD Occasional Paper Series on Culture and Development. 2. Geneva: UNRISD and Paris: UNESCO.

—— 1998. ‘Cultural Indicators of Well‐Being: Some Conceptual Issues’. In UNESCO. 1998. 333–9.

Paul, S. 1989. ‘Community Participation in Development Projects’. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 6. The World Bank.

Peerzade, Sayed Afzal. 1997. ‘The Definition and Measurement of Poverty: An Integrated Islamic Approach’. The Pakistan Development Review. 36/1: 87–97.

Penz, G. Peter. 1991. ‘The Priority of Basic Needs: Toward a Consensus in Development Ethics for Political Engagement’. In Aman, 1991.

Perlman, Mark. 1996. ‘Assessing the Reprinting of Schumpeter's History of Economic Analysis’. In L. S. Moss, ed. Joseph A. Schumpeter, Historian of Economics. London and New York: Routledge.

Perry, Michael. 1989. ‘A Brief Comment’. Tulane Law Review. 63: 1673–8.

Petit, Philip. 1993. Consequentialism. Aldershot: Dartmouth.

Pitt, Mark M., and Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. ‘The Impact of Group‐Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh. Does the Gender of Participants matter?’ Journal of Political Economy. 106/5 (Oct.): 958–96.

Pohl, Gerhard, and Dubravko Mihaljeck. 1992. ‘Project Evaluation and Uncertainty in Practice: A Statistical Analysis of Rate‐of‐Return Divergences of 1,015 World Bank Projects’. World Bank Economic Review. 6/2: 255–77.

Posner, Richard. 2000. ‘Cost‐Benefit Analysis: Definition, Justification and Comment on Conference Papers’. The Journal of Legal Studies. 29/2: 1153–77.

Pratt, Brian, and Jo Boyden. 1985. The Field Director's Handbook: An Oxfam Manual for Development Workers. Oxford: Oxfam Publications.

Psacharopoulos, George. 1994. ‘Returns to Investment in Education: A Global Update’. World Development. 22. 1324–43.

Putnam, Hilary. 1995. ‘Pragmatism and Moral Objectivity’. In Nussbaum and Glover 1995: 199–224.

(p.315) Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Qizilbash, Mozaffar. 1996a. ‘Capabilities, Well‐Being and Human Development: A Survey’. Journal of Development Studies. 33/2: 143–62.

—— 1996b. ‘Ethical Development’. World Development. 24/7: 1209–21.

—— 1997a. ‘Needs, Incommensurability and Well‐being’. Review of Political Economy. 9: 261–76.

—— 1997b. ‘Pluralism and Well‐Being Indices’. World Development. 25: 2009–26.

—— 1998a. ‘Poverty: Concept and Measurement’. Sustainable Development Policy Institute Research Report Series. 12. Islamabad: SDPI.

—— 1998b. ‘The Concept of Well‐Being’. Economics and Philosophy. 14: 51–73.

Qureshi, Saeed, Ijaz Nabi, and Rashid Faruqee. 1996. ‘Rural Finance for Growth and Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan’. Policy Research Working Paper No. 1593. The World Bank.

Rahman, M. D. Anisur. 1988. People's Self‐Development: Perspectives on Participatory Action Research. London: Zed Books.

Ram, Rati. 1992. ‘Intercountry Inequalities in Income and Basic‐Needs Indicators: A Recent Perspective’. World Development. 20: 899–905.

Ramsay, Maureen. 1992. Human Needs and the Market. Aldershot: Avebury.

Ranis, Gustav, Frances Stewart, and Alejandro Ramirez. 2000. ‘Economic Growth and Human Development’. World Development. 28/2: 197–219.

Rati, Ram. 1992. ‘Intercountry Inequalities in Income and Basic Needs Indicators: A Recent Perspective’. World Development. 20/6: 899–906.

Ravallion, Martin. 1994a. ‘Measuring Social Welfare With and Without Poverty Lines’. American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings. 359–63.

—— 1994b. ‘Poverty Rankings Using Noisy Data on Living Standards’. Economics Letters. 45: 481–5.

Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

—— 1980. ‘Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory’. The Journal of Philosophy. 77/9: 515–72.

—— 1982. ‘Social Unity and Primary Goods’. In Sen and Williams, 1982.

—— 1988. ‘The Priority of Right and Ideas of the Good’. Philosophy and Public Affairs. 17/4: 251–76.

—— 1993. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.

—— 1997. ‘The Idea of Public Reason Revisited’. The University of Chicago Law Review. 64/3: 765–807.

Razavi, Shahrashoub. 1996. ‘Excess Female Mortality: An Indicator of Female Subordination? A Note Drawing on Village‐Level Evidence from Southeastern Iran’. Politeia. 12/43–4: 79–96.

Renshon, Stanley A. 1974. Psychological Needs and Political Behavior. New York: Free Press.

Richardson, Henry. 1997. Practical Reasoning about Final Ends. Cambridge Studies in Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1999. ‘Institutionally Divided Moral Responsibility’. Social Philosophy and Policy. 218–49.

—— 2000. ‘The Stupidity of the Cost‐Benefit Standard’. Journal of Legal Studies. 29: 971–1004.

—— Forthcoming. Democratic Autonomy.

Riddell, Roger. 1990. ‘Judging Success: Evaluating NGO Approaches to Alleviating Poverty in Developing countries’. ODI Working Paper No. 37.

Rietbergen‐McCracken, Jennifer, and Deepa Narayan. 1997. ‘Participatory Tools and Techniques: A Resource Kit for Participation and Social Assessment’. Washington: The World Bank.

(p.316) Ringen, Stein. 1995. ‘Well‐Being, Measurement, and Preferences’. Acta Sociologica. 38/3: 3–15.

Robbins, L. 1932. An Essay on the Nature & Significance of Economic Science. London: Macmillan.

—— 1935. An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science. 2nd edn. London: Macmillan.

—— 1938. ‘Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility’. Economic Journal. 48.

Roche, Chris. 1999. Impact Assessment for Development Agencies: Learning to Value Change. Oxford: Oxfam GB with NOVIB.

Rodgers, J. R. 1991. ‘Does the Choice of Poverty Index Matter in Practice?’ Social Indicators Research. 24: 233–52.

Rokeach, Milton. 1969. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values. San Francisco: Jossey‐Bass.

—— 1973. The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press.

Rosenweig, Mark R. 1988. ‘Risk, Implicit Contracts and the Family in Rural Areas of Low Income Countries’. Economic Journal. 98: 1148–79.

Rowntree, B. Seebohm. 1901. Poverty: A Study of Town Life. Bristol: Policy Press.

Ryff, Carol D. 1989. ‘Happiness is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well‐Being’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 57/6: 1069–81.

—— and Susan M. Heidrick. 1997. ‘Experience and Well‐Being: Explorations on Domains of Life and How they Matter’. International Journal of Behavioral Development. 20/2: 193–206.

—— and Corey Lee M. Keyes. 1995. ‘The Structure of Psychological Well‐Being Revisited’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 69/4: 719–27.

Sachs, Wolfgang. 1992. The Development Dictionary. London: Zed Press.

Sah, R. J. and J. E. Stiglitz. 1985. ‘The Social Cost of Labor and Project Evaluation: A General Approach’. Journal of Public Economics. 28: 135–63.

Salmen, Lawrence F. 1987. Listen to the People: A Participant–Observer Evaluation of Development Projects. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.

—— 1992. ‘Reducing Poverty: An Institutional Perspective’. Poverty and Social Policy Series. No. 1. The World Bank.

—— 1995. ‘Beneficiary Assessment: An Approach Described’. Environment Department Papers Social Assessment Series. 23. The World Bank.

—— 1999. ‘Beneficiary Assessment Manual for Social Funds’. Social Protection Discussion Paper, 9930. The World Bank.

Salop, Joanne. 1992. Economic Analysis of Projects: Towards a Results‐Oriented Approach to Evaluation. Washington: The World Bank.

Samuelson, Paul. 1938. ‘A Note on the Pure Theory of Consumer's Behaviour’. Economica. 5.

Sandbrook, Richard. 1982. The Politics of Basic Needs: Urban Aspects of Assaulting Poverty in Africa. London: Heinemann.

Sandel, Michael. 1998. Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Oxford [own notes].

Schoeffel, Penelope. 1995. ‘Cultural and Institutional Issues in the Appraisal of Projects in Developing Countries: South Pacific Water Resources’. Project Appraisal. 10/3.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1952. Ten Great Economists: From Marx to Keynes. London: George Allen & Unwin.

—— 1954. History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schwartz, S. H. 1992. ‘Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries’. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. 25: 1–65.

—— 1994. ‘Are There Universal Aspects in the Structure and Contents of Human Values?’ Journal of Social Issues. 50/4: 19–45.

—— 1997. ‘Values and Culture’. In Donald Munro, John Schumaker, and Staurt C. Carr, eds. Motivation and Culture. New York: Routledge.

(p.317) —— and Wolfgang Bilsky. 1987. ‘Toward a Universal Psychological Structure of Human Values’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 53/3: 550–62.

—— —— 1990. ‘Toward a Theory of the Universal Content and Structure of Values: Extensions and Cross‐Cultural Replications’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 58/5: 878–91.

Sen, Amartya K. 1959a. ‘Choice of Capital‐Intensity Further Considered’. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 73: 466–84.

—— 1959b. ‘The Choice of Agricultural Techniques in Underdeveloped Countries’. Economic Development and Cultural Change. 7: 279–85.

—— 1966a. ‘Hume's Law and Hare's Rule’. Philosophy. 41: 75–9.

—— 1966b. ‘Peasants and Dualism with or without Surplus Labour’. Journal of Public Economy. 74: 425–50.

—— 1966c. ‘Labour Allocation in a Cooperative Enterprise’. Review of Economic Studies. 34(4)/96: 361–71. Reprinted as ch. 2 in D. Prychitko and J. Vanek, eds. 1996. Producer Cooperatives and Labor‐Managed Systems, Volume I. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

—— 1966d. ‘Education, Vintage and Learning by Doing’. Journal of Human Resources. 1: 3–21.

—— 1967. ‘The Nature and Classes of Prescriptive Judgments’. Philosophical Quarterly. 17/66: 46–62.

—— 1970. Collective Choice and Social Welfare. San Francisco: Holden‐Day.

—— 1972. With Steve Marglin and Partha Dasgupta. Part I. ‘Introduction to the Methodology of National Benefit‐Cost Analysis’. Guidelines for Project Evaluation. UNIDO. New York: United Nations.

—— 1973. ‘Choice Functions and Revealed Preference’. Econometrica. 41.

—— 1974a. ‘Choice, Orderings and Morality’. In Stephan Körner, ed. Practical Reason. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

—— 1974b. ‘Informational Bases of Alternative Welfare Approaches: Aggregation and Income Distribution’. Journal of Public Economics. 3: 387–403.

—— 1975. Employment, Technology and Development. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— 1976. ‘Poverty: An Ordinal Approach to Measurement’. Econometrica. 44/2: 219–31.

—— 1977. ‘Rational Fools: A Critique of the Behavioral Foundations of Economic Theory’. Philosophy and Public Affairs. 6: 317–44.

—— 1979a. ‘Informational Analysis of Moral Principles’. In Ross Harrison, ed. Rational Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 115–32.

—— 1979b. ‘Utilitarianism and Welfarism’. The Journal of Philosophy. 76/9: 463–89.

—— 1980a. ‘Equality of What?’ In S. McMurrin, ed. Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1980b. ‘Famines’. World Development. 8: 613–21.

—— 1980c. ‘Labor and Technology’. In J. Cody, H. Hughes, and D. Walls, eds. Policies for Industrial Progress in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press. 121–58.

—— 1980/1. ‘Plural Utility’. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. 81: 193–215.

—— 1981a. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— 1981b. ‘Ingredients of Famine Analysis: Availability and Entitlements’. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 96/3 (Aug.): 433–64.

—— 1981c. ‘A Positive Concept of Negative Freedom’. In E. Morscher and R. Stanzinger, eds. Ethics: Foundations, Problems and Applications. Vienna: Holder‐Pichler‐Tempsky.

—— 1981d. ‘Public Action and the Quality of Life in Developing Countries’. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 43: 287–319.

(p.318) Sen, Amartya K. 1982a. ‘Rights and Agency’. Philosophy and Public Affairs. 11/1: 5–29.

—— 1982b. Choice, Welfare and Measurement. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

—— 1982c. ‘Liberty as Control: An Appraisal’. Midwest Studies in Philosophy. 7: 207–21.

—— 1982d. ‘The Food Problem: Theory and Policy’. Third World Quarterly. 4: 447–59.

—— 1982e. ‘The Right Not To Be Hungry’. In G. Floistad, ed. Contemporary Philosophy. ii. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

—— 1983a. ‘Accounts, Actions and Values: Objectivity of Social Science’. In Chris Lloyd, ed. Social Theory and Political Practice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— 1983b. ‘Evaluator Relativity and Consequential Evaluation’. Philosophy & Public Affairs. 12: 113–32.

—— 1983c. ‘Liberty and Social Choice’. The Journal of Philosophy. 80/1: 5–28.

—— 1983d. ‘Poor, Relatively Speaking’. Oxford Economic Papers. 35: 153–69. Reprinted as chapter 14 in Sen 1984b: 325–45.

—— 1983e. ‘The Profit Motive’. Lloyds Bank Review. 147 (Jan.): 1–20.

—— 1983f. ‘Carrots, Sticks and Economics: Perception Problems in Economics’. Indian Economic Review. 18: 1–16.

—— 1983g. ‘Economics and the Family’. Asian Development Review. 1: 14–26.

—— 1984a. ‘The Living Standard’. Oxford Economic Papers. 36: 74–90.

—— 1984b. Resources, Values and Development. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

—— 1984c. ‘Money and Value: On the Ethics and Economics of Finance’. Economics and Philosophy. 9: 203–27.

—— 1985a. ‘Well‐Being Agency and Freedom: The Dewey Lectures 1984’. Journal of Philosophy. 82/4: 169–221.

—— 1985b. Commodities and Capabilities. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

—— 1985c. ‘A Sociological Approach to the Measurement of Poverty: A Reply to Professor Peter Townsend’. Oxford Economic Papers. 37: 669–76.

—— 1985d. ‘Rights and Capabilities’. In T. Honderich, ed. Morality and Objectivity. London: Routledge. 130–48.

—— 1985e. ‘Rationality and Uncertainty’. Theory and Decision. 18: 109–27.

—— 1985f. ‘Social Choice and Justice: A Review Article’. Journal of Economic Literature. 23: 1764–76.

—— 1985g. ‘The Moral Standing of the Market’. Social Philosophy and Policy. 2: 1–19.

—— 1986a. ‘Behaviour and the Concept of Preference’. In J. Elster, ed. Rational Choice. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

—— 1986b. ‘Information and Invariance in Normative Choice’. In W. Heller, Ross Starr, and David Starrett, eds. Social Choice and Public Decision‐Making: Essays in Honor of K. J. Arrow, Vol I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1986c. ‘Rationality, Interest, and Identity’. In Alejandro Foxley, ed. Development, Democracy and the Art of Trespassing. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press. 343–53.

—— 1986d. ‘Social Choice Theory’. In K. J. Arrow and M. D. Intriligator, eds. Handbook of Mathematical Economics, Volume III. North‐Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers.

—— 1986e. ‘Food, Economics and Entitlements’. In WIDER Working Papers. WP1 (Feb.).

—— 1986f. ‘Adam Smith's Prudence’. In S. Lall and Frances Stewart, eds. Theory and Reality in Development. London: Macmillan.

—— 1987a. On Ethics and Economics. New York: Basil Blackwell.

—— 1987b. ‘The Standard of Living’. In Sen et al. 1987.

—— 1988a. ‘The Concept of Development’. In H. Chenery and T. N. Srinivasan, eds. The Handbook of Development Economics Volume I. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishers.

(p.319) —— 1988b. ‘Freedom of Choice’. European Economic Review. 32: 269–94.

—— 1988c. ‘Family and Food: Sex‐Bias in Poverty’. In P. Bardhan and T. N. Srinivasan, eds. Rural Poverty in South Asia. New York: Columbia University Press.

—— 1988d. ‘Property and Hunger’. Economics and Philosophy. 4: 57–68.

—— 1989a. ‘Women's Survival as a Development Problem’. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Science. 43.

—— 1989b. ‘Economic Methodology: Heterogeneity and Relevance’. Social Research. 56/2: 299–329.

—— 1989c. ‘The Territory of Justice’. Discussion Paper 1425. Harvard Institute of Economic Research.

—— 1989d. ‘Food and Freedom’. Text of Sir John Crawford Memorial Lecture, Washington, 1987, reprinted in World Development. 17: 769–81.

—— 1989e. ‘Indian Development: Lessons and Non‐Lessons’. Daedalus. 118: 369–92.

—— 1989f. ‘Sri Lanka's Achievements: How and When’. In P. Bardhan and T. N. Srinivasan, eds. Rural Poverty in South Asia. New York: Columbia University Press.

—— 1990a. ‘Development as Capability Expansion’. In K. Griffin and J. Knight, eds. Human Development and the International Development Strategy for the 1990s. London: Macmillan.

—— 1990b. ‘Justice: Means versus Freedoms’. Philosophy & Public Affairs. 19: 107–21.

—— 1990c. ‘Gender and Cooperative Conflict’. In Irene Tinker, ed. Persistent Inequalities. New York: Oxford University Press.

—— 1990d. ‘Public Action to Remedy Hunger’. Arturo Tanco Lecture delivered 2 August 1990 at Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, London: The Global Hunger Project.

—— 1991a. ‘Economic Development: Objectives and Obstacles’. In Kurt Martin, ed. Strategies of Economic Development. New York: St Martin's Press.

—— 1991b. ‘Wars and Famines: On Divisions and Incentives’. Suntory‐Toyota International Centre Discussion Paper, No. 33. London School of Economics Development Economics Research Program.

—— 1991c. ‘Welfare, Preference and Freedom’. Journal of Econometrics. 50: 15–29.

—— 1991d. ‘The Nature of Inequality’. In K. J. Arrow, ed. Issues in Contemporary Economics: Markets and Welfare. London: Macmillan.

—— 1991e. ‘What Did You Learn in the World Today?’ American Behavioral Scientist. 34: 530–48.

—— 1991f. ‘Utility: Ideas and Terminology’. Economics and Philosophy. 7/2: 277–83.

—— 1991g. ‘Beneconfusion’. In J. G. T. Meeks, ed. Thoughtful Economic Man: Essays on Rationality, Moral Rules and Benevolence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1992a. Inequality Reexamined. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

—— 1992b. ‘Markets and Governments’. Boston University Institute for Economic Development. Discussion Paper. 28: 1–19.

—— 1992c. ‘Progress and Social Deficit: Some Methodological Issues’. In M. Desai, A. Sen, and J. Boltvinik, Social Progress Index: A Proposal. Regional Project to Overcome Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean (RLA/86/004). Bogota: UNDP.

—— 1992d. ‘Minimal Liberty’. Economica. 59: 139–59.

—— 1993a. ‘Capability and Well‐Being’. In Nussbaum and Sen 1993: 30–53.

—— 1993b. ‘Life Expectancy and Inequality: Some Conceptual Issues’. In P. Bardhan, Mrinal Datta‐Chaudhuri, and T. N. Krishnan, eds. Development and Change: Essays in Honour of K. N. Raj. Bombay: Oxford University Press.

—— 1993c. ‘Markets and Freedoms: Achievements and Limitations of the Market Mechanism in Promoting Individual Freedoms’. Oxford Economic Papers. 45: 519–41.

(p.320) Sen, Amartya K. 1993d. ‘Positional Objectivity’. Philosophy and Public Affairs. 22: 126–45.

—— 1993e. ‘Internal Consistency of Choice’. Econometrica. 61/3: 495–521.

—— 1993f. ‘Money and Value: On the Ethics and Economics of Finance’. Economics and Philosophy. 9: 203–27.

—— 1993g. ‘The Economics of Life and Death’. Scientific American. 266.

—— 1993h. ‘On the Darwinian View of Progress’. Population and Development Review. 19/1: 130–7.

—— 1993i. ‘The Idea of India’. Nehru Lecture given at Trinity College, Cambridge, on 5 Feb. 1993.

—— 1993j. ‘India and the West’. The New Republic. 208/23: 27–34.

—— 1993k. ‘Markets and Freedoms’. Oxford Economic Papers. 45/4: 519–41.

—— 1994a. ‘Rational Choice and Monitoring: Facts and Theory’. Paper presented at American Economic Association Annual Meeting.

—— 1994b. ‘Well‐Being, Capability and Public Policy’. Giornale degli economisti et Annali di economia. 53: 334–47.

—— 1994c. ‘Economic Wealth and Moral Sentiments’. Lecture held in Zurich on 28 Apr. 1994 on invitation of Bank Hofmann A. G., Zurich, and the Faculty of Economics at the University of Zurich.

—— 1994d. ‘Population and Reasoned Agency: Food, Fertility, and Economic Development’. In K. Lindahl‐Kiessling and H. Landberg, eds. Population, Economic Development, and the Environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— 1994e. ‘The Formulation of Rational Choice’. AEA Papers and Proceedings. 385–90.

—— 1994f. ‘Markets and the Freedom to Choose’. In Siebert 1994.

—— 1995a. ‘Environmental Evaluation and Social Choice: Contingent Valuation and the Market Analogy’. The Japanese Economic Review. 23–37.

—— 1995b. ‘Rationality and Social Choice’. Presidential address delivered at the 107th meeting of the American Economic Association, 7 Jan. 1995. American Economic Review. 85/1: 1–24.

—— 1995c. ‘Gender Inequality and Theories of Justice’. In Nussbaum and Glover 1995: 259–73.

—— 1995d. ‘Is the Idea of Purely Internal Consistency of Choice Bizarre?’ In J. Altham and R. Harrison, eds. World, Mind, and Ethics: Essays on the Ethical Philosophy of Bernard Williams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 19–31.

—— 1995e. ‘Demography and Welfare Economics’ Empirica. 22: 1–21.

—— 1995f. ‘The Political Economy of Targeting’. In Van de Walle, D. and K. Nead, eds. Public Spending and the Poor: Theory and Evidence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press for the World Bank.

—— 1995g. ‘Varieties of Deprivation: Comments on Chapters by Pujol and Hutchinson’. In Edith Kuiper, ed. Out of the Margin: Feminist Perspectives on Economics. London: Routledge.

—— 1995h. ‘Agency and Well‐Being: The Development Agenda’. In Noeleen Heyzer, S. Kapoor, and J. Sandler, eds. A Commitment to the World's Women: Perspectives on Development for Beijing and Beyond. New York: UNIFEM.

—— 1995i. ‘Economic Regress: Concepts and Features’. Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1993. Washington: The World Bank. 315–54.

—— 1996a. ‘On the Foundations of Welfare Economics: Utility, Capability and Practical Reason’. In Farina et al. 1996: 50–65.

—— 1996b. ‘Welfare Economics and Two Approaches to Rights’. In Jose Casas Pardo and Friedrich Schneider, eds. Current Issues in Public Choice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

(p.321) —— 1996c. ‘Social Commitment and Democracy: The Demands of Equity and Financial Conservatism’. In Paul Barker, ed. Living as Equals: The Eva Colorni Memorial Lectures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— 1996d. ‘Rationality, Joy and Freedom’. Critical Review. 10/4: 481–94.

—— 1996e. ‘Freedom, Capabilities and Public Action: A Response’. Politeia. 12/43–4: 107–25.

—— 1996f. ‘Our Culture, Their Culture’. The New Republic. 1 April: 27–34.

—— 1996g. ‘On the Status of Equality’. Political Theory. 24/3: 394–400.

—— 1996h. ‘The Concept of Wealth’. In Ramon H. Myers, ed. The Wealth of Nations in the Twentieth Century: The Policies and Institutional Determinants of Economic Development. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press.

—— 1997a. On Economic Inequality. With a substantial annexe ‘After a Quarter Century’ by J. Foster and A. Sen. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— 1997b. ‘What's the Point of a Development Strategy?’ In E. Malinvaud et al. Development Strategy and the Management of the Market Economy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— 1997c. ‘Development Thinking at the Beginning of the 21st Century’. In Luis Emmerij, ed. Economic and Social Development in the XXI Century. Washington: Inter‐American Development Bank and Johns Hopkins University Press.

—— 1997d. ‘Maximization and the Act of Choice’. Econometrica. 65/4: 745–79.

—— 1997e. ‘Radical Needs and Moderate Reforms’. In Drèze and Sen 1997: 1–32.

—— 1997f. ‘Indian Traditions and the Western Imagination’. Daedalus. 126/2: 1–26.

—— 1997g. ‘Poverty in the Human Development Perspective: Concept and Measurement’. In UNDP 1997: 15–23.

—— 1997h. ‘Individual Preference as the Basis of Social Choice’. In Arrow et al. 1997.

—— 1997i. ‘Economics, Business Principles and Moral Sentiments’. Business Ethics Quarterly. 7/3: 5–15.

—— 1997j. ‘From Income Inequality to Economic Inequality’. Southern Economic Journal. 64/2: 384–401.

—— 1997k. ‘Human Rights and Asian Values’. Sixteenth Morgenthau Memorial Lecture on Ethics & Foreign Policy.

—— 1997l. ‘Human Rights and Asian Values: What Lee Kuan Yew and Le Peng don't understand about Asia’. The New Republic. 217 (14 July): n. 2–3.

—— 1997m. ‘Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe’. International Labour Review. 136/2: 155–72.

—— 1997n. ‘Maximization and the Act of Choice’. Econometrica. 65/4: 745–79.

—— 1997o. ‘The Penalties of Unemployment’. Temi di Discussione del Servizio Studi. 307 (June). Rome: Banca d'Italia.

—— 1998a. ‘Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure’. Economic Journal. 108/447: 1–25.

—— 1998b. ‘Culture, Freedom and Independence’. In UNESCO 1998: 317–21.

—— 1998c. ‘Reason Before Identity’. Romanes Lecture given in Oxford on 17 Nov. 1998.

—— 1998d. ‘Economic Policy and Equity: An Overview’. Prepared for Conference on Economic Policy and Equity, IMF, 8–9 June.

—— 1998e. ‘Individual Freedom: Basis for a Social Commitment’. Excerpt from the address delivered at the award ceremony for the Giovanni Agnelli International Prize, 16 Oct.

—— 1998f. ‘The Possibility of Social Choice’. American Economic Review. 89/3: 349–78.

—— 1998g. ‘Universal Truths: Human Rights and the Westernizing Illusion’. Harvard International Review. 40–3.

—— 1999a. Development as Freedom. New York: Knopf Press.

(p.322) Sen, Amartya K. 1999b. ‘Democracy as a Universal Value’. Journal of Democracy. 10/3: 3–17.

—— 1999c. ‘The Possibility of Social Choice’. American Economic Review. 89/3: 349–78.

—— 1999d. ‘Health in Development’. Keynote address to the Fifty‐Second World Health Assembly, Geneva, 18 May.

—— 1999e. ‘Foreword’. In Jacques Silber, ed. Handbook of Income Inequality Management. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

—— 2000a. ‘Consequential Evaluation and Practical Reason’. The Journal of Philosophy. 97/9: 477–502.

—— 2000b. ‘Population and Gender Equity’. Nation. 271/4: 16–8.

—— 2000c. ‘The Discipline of Cost‐Benefit Analysis’. Journal of Legal Studies. 29: 931–53.

—— 2000d. ‘India through Its Calendars’. The Little Magazine. 1 (1 May): 5–12.

—— 2000e. ‘Beyond Identity: Other People’. The New Republic. 223/25: 23–30.

—— 2000f. ‘India and the Bomb’. The New Republic. 25 Sept.: 32–8.

—— 2000g. ‘East and West: The Reach of Reason’. The Atlantic Online. July: 1–3.

—— 2000h. ‘Work and Rights’. International Labour Review. Geneva. 119–28.

—— 2000i. ‘What Difference can Ethics Make?’ Presented at the International Meeting on ‘Ethics and Development’ of the Inter‐American Development Bank in collaboration with the Norwegian government.

—— 2000j. ‘Social Exclusion: Concept, Application, and Scrutiny’. Social Development Papers, No. 1. Office of Environment and Social Development, Asian Development Bank.

—— 2001. ‘Apocalypse Then’. The New York Times. 18 Feb.

—— and S. Anand. 1994a. ‘Sustainable Human Development: Concepts and Priorities’. Occasional Paper, No. 8, Human Development Report Office. New York: UNDP.

—— —— 1994b. ‘Human Development Index: Methodology and Measurement’. Occasional Paper, No. 12, Human Development Report Office. New York: UNDP.

—— —— 1997. ‘Concepts of Human Development and Poverty: A Multidimensional Perspective’. Background Paper for UNDP 1997.

—— —— 2000a. ‘Human Development and Economic Sustainability’. World Development. 28/12: 2029–49.

—— —— 2000b. ‘The Income Component of the Human Development Index’. Journal of Human Development. 1/1: 83–106.

—— J. Muellbauer, R. Kanbur, K. Hart, and B. Williams. 1987. The Standard of Living: The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— and Bernard Williams, eds. 1982. Utilitarianism and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shaffer, Paul. 1996. ‘Beneath the Poverty Debate’. IDS Bulletin. 27/1.

Sheehan, G., and M. Hopkins. 1979. Basic Needs Performance: An Analysis of some International Data. Geneva: ILO.

Siebert, Horst, ed. 1994. The Ethical Foundations of the Market. Tübingen: Mohr.

Sikkink, Kathryn. 1991. Ideas and Institutions: Developmentalism in Brazil and Argentina. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Singer, P. 1995. ‘Is there a Universal Moral Sense?’ Critical Review. 9/3: 325–39.

Smith, Adam. 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Edinburgh, 1997.

Smith, Peter B., and Michael Harriss Bond. 1993. Social Psychology across Cultures: Analysis and Perspectives. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Spelman, Elizabeth. 2000. ‘How do they see you?’ London Review of Books. 16 Nov.

(p.323) Springborg, Patricia. 1981. The Problem of Human Needs and the Critique of Civilisation. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Squire, Lyn, I. M. D. Little, and Mete Durdag. 1979. ‘Application of Shadow Pricing to Country Economic Analysis with an Illustration from Pakistan’. World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 330. Washington: The World Bank.

—— and H. G. van der Tak. 1975. Economic Analysis of Projects. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Srinivasan, T. N. 1994a. ‘Destitution: A Discourse’. Journal of Economic Literature. 32: 1842–55.

—— 1994b. ‘Human Development: A New Paradigm or Reinvention of the Wheel?’ American Economic Review. 84/2: 238–43.

Stark, Oded. 1995. Altruism and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stewart, Frances. 1985. Basic Needs in Developing Countries. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Stewart, Frances. 1986. ‘The Human Dimension in Development: Objective and Resource’. In Khadija Haq and Uner Kirdar. Human Development: The Neglected Dimension. North–South Round Table. New York: United Nations. 28–45.

—— 1989. ‘Basic Needs Strategies, Human Rights and the Right to Development’. Human Rights Quarterly. 11: 347–74.

—— 1995. ‘Groups for Good or Ill’. Paper presented at 1995 QEH Conference.

—— 1996. ‘Basic Needs, Capabilities, and Human Development’. In Offer, 1996.

—— Henk Thomas, and Ton de Wilde, eds. 1990. The Other Policy: The Influence of Policies on Technology Choice and Small Enterprise Development. London: IT Publications.

—— and Ejaz Ghani. 1991. ‘How Significant are Externalities for Development?’ World Development. 19/6: 569–94.

Stiefel, Matthis, and Marshall Wolfe. 1994. A Voice for the Excluded: Popular Participation in Development Utopia or Necessity? London: Zed Books in association with UNRISD.

Streeten, Paul. 1984. ‘Basic Needs: Some Unsettled Questions’. World Development. 12/9: 973–8.

—— 1994. ‘Human Development Means and Ends’. American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings. 84/2: 85–97.

—— Shaid Javed Burki, Mahbub ul Haq, Norman Hicks, and Frances Stewart, et al. 1981. First Things First: Meeting Basic Human Needs in Developing Countries. London: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.

Sugden, Robert. 1993. ‘Welfare, Resources and Capabilities: A Review of Inequality Reexamined by Amartya Sen’. Journal of Economic Literature. 31: 1947–62.

—— and A. Williams. 1978. The Principles of Cost‐Benefit Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Summers, L. 1992. ‘Investing in All the People’. Policy Research Working Paper, No. 905. The World Bank.

Sunstein, Cass R. 1996. Legal Reasoning and Political Conflict. New York: Oxford University Press.

—— 2000. ‘Cognition and Cost‐Benefit Analysis’. The Journal of Legal Studies. 29/2: 1059–104.

Tashakkori, Abbas, and Charles Teddlie. 1998. Mixed Methodologies: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. London: Sage Publications.

Taylor, C. N., C. H. Bryan, and Colin G. Goodrich. 1990. Social Assessment: Theory, Process and Techniques. Studies in Resource Management No. 7. New Zealand: Centre for Resource Management.

Taylor, Charles. 1993. ‘Explanation and Practical Reason’. In Nussbaum and Sen 1993.

(p.324) Tendler, Judith. 1989. ‘What Ever Happened to Poverty Alleviation?’ World Development. 17/7: 1033–44.

Therkildsen, Ole. 1988. Watering White Elephants. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.

Townsend, Peter. 1974. ‘Poverty as Relative Deprivation: Resources and Styles of Living’. In Dorothy Wedderburn, ed. Poverty, Inequality and Class Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— 1985. ‘A Sociological Approach to the Measurement of Poverty—A Rejoinder to Professor Amartya Sen’. Oxford Economic Papers. 37: 659–68.

Trump, Thomas M. 1991. ‘Value Formation and Postmaterialism: Inglehart's Theory of Value Change Reconsidered’. Comparative Political Studies. 24: 365–90.

UNDP. 1990–2001 (annually). The Human Development Report. New York: United Nations Development Programme.

UNESCO. 1995. Our Creative Diversity: Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

—— 1998. World Culture Report 1998: Culture, Creativity and Markets. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

UNIDO. 1972. (P. Dasgupta, A. Sen, and S. Marglin) Guidelines for Project Evaluation. New York: United Nations Industrial Development Organization.

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 1995. ‘Social Integration: Approaches and Issues’. UNRISD Briefing Paper Series. 1. World Summit for Social Development.

University of Stockholm. 1991. ‘Guidelines for Consultations and Popular Participation in Development Processes and Projects’. Popular Participation Programme. Mimeo.

UNRISD and UNESCO. 1997. ‘Towards a World Report on Culture and Development: Constructing Cultural Statistics and Indicators’. Report of the Workshop on Cultural Indicators of Development. Royaumont Foundation, France, 4–7 Jan. UNRISD Occasional Paper series on Culture and Development. 1. Geneva: UNRISD and Paris: UNESCO.

Uphoff, Norman. 1998. ‘Learning about and for Participation: From Theoretical and Empirical Studies to Practical Experience, and Back to Theory’. Canadian Journal of Development Studies. 19/3: 439–60.

Van der Hoeven, Rolph. 1988. Planning for Basic Needs: A Soft Option or a Solid Policy? A Basic Needs Simulation Model applied to Kenya. Aldershot: Gower for ILO/WEP.

Veenhoven, Ruut. 1993. Happiness in Nations: Subjective Appreciation of Life in 56 Nations 1946–1992. Rotterdam: RISBO, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.

—— Carla Den Buitlar, and Henk de Heer. 1994. World Database of Happiness: Correlates of Happiness. Rotterdam: RISBO.

Vivian, Jessica. 1993. ‘NGOs and Sustainable Development in Zimbabwe: No Magic Bullets’. Development and Change. 25/1: 167–94.

—— and G. Maseko. 1994. ‘NGOs, Participation, and Rural Development: Testing the Assumptions with Evidence from Zimbabwe’. UNRISD Discussion Paper, No. 49.

Wade, Robert. 1988. Village Republics: Economic Conditions for Collective Action in South India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wainryb, Cecelia. 1993. ‘The Application of Moral Judgements to other Cultures: Relativism and Universality’. Child Development. 64/3: 924–33.

Ward, William, Barry Deren, and Emmanuel D'Silva. 1991. The Economics of Project Analysis: A Practitioner's Guide. EDI Technical Materials. Washington: The World Bank.

Welbourn, Alice. 1992. ‘Rapid Rural Appraisal, Gender and Health: Alternative Ways of Listening to Needs’. IDS Bulletin. 23/1: 8–18.

(p.325) Westendorff, David G., and Dharam Ghai. 1993. Monitoring Social Progress in the 1990s. Aldershot: Avebury.

Wiggins, David. 1998. Needs, Values, Truth. 3rd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Wignaraja, Ponna. 1993. New Social Movements in the South: Empowering the People. London: Zed Books.

Wilson, W. 1967. ‘Correlates of Avowed Happiness’. Psychological Bulletin. 67: 294–306.

Woolcock, Michael. 1998. ‘Social Capital and Economic Development: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis and Policy Framework’. Theory and Society. 27: 151–208.

World Bank. 1989. Sub‐Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Growth: A Long‐Term Perspective Study. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1991. ‘Operational Directive 4.15: Poverty Reduction’. 31 Dec. The World Bank Operation Manual.

—— 1992a. ‘Reducing Poverty: An Institutional Perspective’. Poverty and Social Policy Series. No. 1.

—— 1992b. Poverty Reduction Handbook. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1992c. Effective Implementation: Key to Development Impact. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1993. Implementing the World Bank's Strategy to Reduce Poverty: Progress and Challenges. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1996a. Handbook on Economic Analysis of Investment Operations. May. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1996b. Ethics and Spiritual Values: Promoting Environmentally Sustainable Development. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1996c. Introduction to Social Assessment (SA): Incorporating Participation and Social Analysis in to the Bank's Work. July. Washington DC: The World Bank Social Policy and Resettlement Division.

—— 1996d. The World Bank Participation Source Book. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1997. World Development Report: The State in a Changing World. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1998a. World Development Report 1998. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1998b. Assessing Aid: What Works, What Doesn't, and Why. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.

—— 1998c. Social Development Update. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 1998d. Social Assessment Guidelines. Washington DC: The World Bank.

—— 2000. World Development Report 2000/2001. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Wunsch, J., and D. Olowu, eds. 1990. The Failure of the Centralised State. Colorado: Westview Press. (p.326)