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The Church in Ancient SocietyFrom Galilee to Gregory the Great$

Henry Chadwick

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780199246953

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0199246955.001.0001

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(p.694) Further Reading

(p.694) Further Reading

The Church in Ancient Society
Oxford University Press

A proper book list for so long a period of history as that sketched in this volume could easily be much longer than the volume itself. A recent catalogue for Athanasius alone by C. Butterweck (Opladen, 1995) runs to a few hundred pages. Origen and Augustine have specialized bibliographies. For Tertullian and Cyprian (1975–94) see R. Braun (1999). The list here given is therefore a selection, which, for reasons of space, cannot include many items which would be desirable. The publisher Ashgate (Aldershot) publishes many volumes of collected studies with papers from Festschriften and periodicals. A bibliography of New Testament problems would be enormous, and that part of the story is therefore omitted here, since any good Introduction to the New Testament (e.g. that by Raymond E. Brown, New York, 1997) provides book lists.

I. Sources

The nineteenth‐century French editor J. P. Migne printed 221 volumes of Latin texts as late as Pope Innocent III, Greek writers to 1439 in 162 volumes. A. Hamman produced 5 supplementary volumes (Paris, 1958–74). The volumes from Migne do not fully answer to expectations of modern critical scholarship, but are often the only edition easily available. Collections of Latin texts edited critically are the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, CSEL (Vienna, 1866ff., still in progress), and Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina (CCSL published by Brepols, in Turnhout), also in progress but for the first six centuries not far from completion. The Corpus Christianorum series graeca (CCSG) does not yet include early texts of the first five or six centuries, but includes writings important in the Christological controversy.

Critical texts of early Greek Christians are in the series under the Berlin Academy, Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte (1899ff.), especially Hermas, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and the historians, Eusebius of Caesarea, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, and Karl Holl's three‐volume edition of Epiphanius. Evagrius' history is edited by J. Bidez and Parmentier (London, 1899. reprinted).

Athanasius is in process of being edited, also under the Berlin Academy, but in a separate series. For the second century apologists the old edition by E. J. Goodspeed (1914), who did not include Theophilus of Antioch, is in process of being replaced piecemeal. The older edition by J. C. T. Otto remains useful. Justin (and pseudo‐Justin) is edited by M. Marcovich in Patristische Texte und Arbeiten; the Apologies by C. Munier in Paradosis, a series from Fribourg, Switzerland. For Irenaeus, five (p.695) volumes in Sources Chrétiennes. Tertullian, Cyprian, and Novatian, are in Corpus Christianorum, the edition of Cyprian's letters being recent (1997) and replacing the old CSEL edition by Hartel (1866). For commentary on Cyprian's letters, the annotated translation by Graeme Clarke in Ancient Christian Writers (4 vols.) is expert.

Oriental texts: Patrologia Orientalis (Paris 1907ff.) and Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium (CSCO) 1903ff., now published by Peeters at Leuven. Both series provide texts and translations into modern European tongues or into Latin. For Aphrahat see Patrologia Syriaca, I (1894–1907). The only complete edition of Ephrem the Syrian including spuria, though unsatisfactory, is by J. S. Assemani in 6 folio vols. (1732–46). CSCO includes some of his works. C. W. Mitchell edited his Prose Refutations of Mani, Marcion, and Bardaisan (1912–21). The letters of Severus of Antioch were edited and translated by E. W. Brooks, partly in PO, partly separately. Other works by Severus in CSCO, esp. edited by J. Lebon and R. Hespel; Severus' biography is in PO 2. Major Armenian texts are translated by Robert Thomson. CSCO includes some Coptic texts but they are more widely scattered.

For numerous texts the French series Sources Chrétiennes (Paris, Cerf) gives both a critical text and French version with good introductions and notes; there are now over 400 volumes. The Collection Budé includes Ammianus Marcellinus, Libanius, and Zosimus. Much of Augustine is in the Bibliothèque Augustinienne with French translation and good notes. Some authors are in Oxford Early Christian Texts with English version and notes.

Some basic texts are edited in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica (MGH), especially Auctores Antiquissimi (AA) and Epistolae I–III. A few individual early Christians have editions in the Teubner series of classical authors e.g. the epitome of Lactantius, Nemesius of Emesa, Theodoret. Likewise the Loeb Classical Library has the Apostolic Fathers, selected items of Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Minucius Felix, the Church History of Eusebius, Jerome (letters), Augustine (letters, Confessions, and City of God), Ausonius, Ammianus and the Anonymus Valesianus, Libanius, Prudentius, Sidonius Apollinaris, Boethius, Procopius, Bede. Didascalia Apostolorum: ed. R. H. Connolly (Oxford, 1929) with English version.

The imperial laws of the Codex Theodosianus (CTh) were edited by Theodor Mommsen, 3 vols. (Berlin, 1905). The English translation by C. Pharr (Princeton, 1952) has to be used with caution, but is useful. For Justinian see Codex Juris Civilis, ed. P. Krüger (Berlin, 1915). There is no satisfactory English translation of his Code or (more important) his new edicts (Novels), many of which bear on ecclesiastical history. The Digest is translated ed. A. G. Watson (Princeton) with Latin text, paperback.

English translations exist for many texts from the ancient Church, especially the Oxford Library of the Fathers in 48 vols., 1835–85, beginning with E. B. Pusey's good translation of Augustine's Confessions and including Augustine on the Psalms, John Chrysostom's homilies on the New Testament, and Gregory the Great's Moralia; the Ante‐Nicene Christian Library in 28 vols. (1886–1900), later reprinted in Grand Rapids, Mich., by Eerdmans. Variable in quality (but the volumes of Athanasius and Gregory of Nyssa are remarkable) are the Nicene and Post‐Nicene Fathers in 14 vols., vol. 14 with conciliar canons (Oxford and New York, 1887–93); a second series 1890–1900 for select writings of Augustine. Ancient Christian (p.696) Writers (Westminster, Md., 1946ff. still in progress); Fathers of the Church (Catholic University of America, Washington DC, 1947 ff. still in progress and now extensive). W. Bright's commentary on the canons of the first four general councils (Oxford, 1892) has good matter.

Papal letters: Letters to Xystus III were learnedly edited by P. Coustant (Paris, 1721, repr. 1967); his edition is reproduced in various volumes of Migne's PL. Leo I's letters were edited by the brothers Ballerini, repr. in PL 54; from Hilarus to Hormisdas (461–523) by A. Thiel (1867, reprinted), but several were included in the Avellana collection (CSEL 35, 1897). Numerous papal letters of the fifth and sixth centuries, especially Leo and Vigilius, are in Eduard Schwartz's Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum (1914ff.) and his Göttingen and Munich Academy monographs with masterly discussions both there and in his Latin prefaces to fascicles of ACO. On the history of the papacy, indispensable is Erich Caspar's incomplete but brilliant Geschichte des Papsttums, 2 vols. (Tübingen, 1933). Walter Ullmann wrote an admirable biography of Pope Gelasius I (1981); see too C. Pietri, Roma Christiana, 2 vols. (French School at Rome, 1976). The Liber Pontificalis was edited by L. Duchesne with supplement by C. Vogel, 3 vols. (Paris, 1955); Duchesne's commentary is valuable. An English translation with good notes by Raymond Davies in the Liverpool series ‘Translated Texts for Historians’ in 3 vols. Theodor Mommsen also produced (in MGH) a clear edition of this text without commentary and excluding the medieval biographies.

Canon Law: C. H. Turner Ecclesiae Occidentalis Monumenta Iura Antiquissima (Oxford, 1899–1939), remains basic for the early Latin west. See too H. T. Bruns, Canones apostolorum et conciliorum, 2 vols. (Berlin, 1839); Spanish councils edited by J. Vives, Concilios Visigóticos (Barcelona and Madrid, 1963).

Papyri: J. van Haelst, Catalogue des papyrus littéraires juifs et chrétiens (Paris, 1976); Kurt Treu, ‘Christliche Papyri 1940–67’, Archiv für Papyrusforschung, 19 (1969), 169–206 and reports in subsequent issues down to 1991; Kurt Aland, Repertorium der griechischen christlichen Papyri, i (1976), ii (1995) ed. H. U. Rosenbaum (excludes texts written on parchment); Berliner Klassikertexte VI (1910) ed. S. Schmidt and W. Schubart; art. Papyrus in DACL 13, 1 (1937); G. H. R. Horsley, New Documents illustrating early Christianity, ii, iii, and v (1982–9), North Ryde, Australia; R. A. Pack, The Greek and Latin Literary Texts from Greco‐Roman Egypt, 2nd edn. (Ann Arbor, 1965); Stanley E. Porter, ‘The Greek Apocryphal Gospels Papyri’, in Akten des 21. Internationalen Papyrologenkongresses, 1995 = Archiv f. Papyrusforschung, Beiheft 3 (1997), 795–803; C. Wessely, ‘Les plus anciens monuments du Christianisme écrits sur papyrus’, in Patrologia Orientalis 4 (1907), 95–310; 183 (1924), 344–510; José O'Callaghan, Cartas cristianas griegas del siglo V (Barcelona, 1963), M. Naldini, Il cristianesimo in Egitto (Florence, 1968). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik often carries reports on new finds.

Inscriptions: E. Diehl, Inscriptiones Latinae Christianae Veteres (Berlin, 1925–31) with Supplements (1967) by J. Moreau and H. I. Marrou and then Ferrua (1989) (ILCV). H. Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS), reprinted 1974. J. Vives (ed.), Inscripciones cristianas de la España romana y visigoda, 2nd edn. (Barcelona, 1969). Annual reports of new finds are in L'Année épigraphique.

(p.697) II. Bibliographies

Annual bibliographies appear in Bibliographica patristica (Berlin, 1959ff.), Revue d'Histoire ecclésiastique (Louvain‐la‐Neuve), and L'Année philologique.

Good reference bibliographies are B. Altaner, Patrologie (Freiburg, Herder, 8th edn. 1978) English translation of sixth edn. 1960. Larger is J. Quasten's Patrology, 3 vols. (Utrecht 1950–60), supplemented by three further volumes edited by A. Di Berardino, 1978, 1996, and 2001 (Marietti, Genoa) reaching to the eighth century.

The standard catalogues of documents and editions are the Clavis Patrum Latinorum, ed. Dekkers (new edn. 1999), and the Clavis Patrum Graecorum, ed. M. Geerard (5 vols. and supplement), both published by Brepols of Turnhout in Belgium. See also H. J. Frede, Kirchenschriftsteller, 4th edn. (Freiburg, B., 1995), with supplement by R. Gryson (1999).

III. Reference Books

Various encyclopaedias cover much of the subject. e.g. Dictionary of Christian Biography, 4 vols. (London, 1877–87), where contributors include J. B. Lightfoot, B. F. Westcott, H. B. Swete et al.; the 50 vols. of Pauly‐Wissowa, Realenzyklopädie der classischen Altertumswissenshaft, with 15 supplementary volumes (few fail to contain valuable information about early Christians or others who affected them); Dictionnaire de Théologie catholique 15 vols. (Paris, 1903–50). Dictionnaire d'Archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, 15 vols. in 30 parts (Paris, 1924–53); Dictionnaire de Spiritualité ascétique et mystique 17 vols. (Paris, 1937–95). Encyclopedia of the Early Church, ed. A. Di Berardino, with bibliographies by W. H. C. Frend, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1992), translated from Italian. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, 3 vols. (New York, 1991), contains brief articles on Greek theologians and councils of the fifth century. Exceptional is Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum (Stuttgart, Anton Hiersemann), which since 1940 has covered subjects and persons from A to J with substantial matter on the continuity and discontinuity between pre‐Christian and Christian society in antiquity; this work continues the questions put by F. J. Dölger, Antike und Christentum, 6 vols. (1919–40, reprinted 1975) (a mine of antiquarian information) and his large monograph on the fish‐symbol, Ichthys, 5 vols. (Münster, 1922–40). The Harvard Dictionary of Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Post‐Classical World (1999), does not exclude Christians, as is largely the case with the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, 3 vols. in 4 (Cambridge, 1971–92). See too E. Ferguson (ed.) Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, 2nd edn. (New York, 1997). A. Mandouze edited a Prosopography of the African Churches (Paris, 1982). There is a recent Prosopography of the Italian churches (1999).

Augustinus‐Lexikon (Basel, 1986 ff.) is to cover every aspect of Augustine. Augustine through the Ages, ed. A. D. Fitzgerald (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1999), also has articles of high quality and good bibliographies.

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd edn. by E. A. Livingstone, 1997) contains many articles on persons and subjects in the ancient Christian period, with valuable bibliographies. A broad survey of Latin Christian writers is by P. de (p.698) Labriolle, History of Latin Christian Literature (London, 1924), translated by Herbert Wilson from French (Paris, 1920, revised 1947).

Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (ed. J. B. Bury in 7 vols., London, 1896–1900) depended on the distinguished Le Nain de Tillemont, Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire ecclésiastique des six premiers siècles, 16 vols. (Paris, 1693–1712), which remain essential on many details. Tillemont's Histoire des Empereurs (6 vols.) also has valuable matter. In England his contemporary William Cave (1637–1713) did useful spadework on texts and authors. Joseph Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church (London, 1708–22; repr. Oxford, 1875), is invaluable on all but theological ideas; J. Gaudemet, L'Église dans l'empire romain (Paris, 1958), on institutions.

On the background history of the Roman empire, the Cambridge Ancient History, vol. XI, XII and especially XIII, has good bibliographies. Among expert authors to consult see A. Harnack, J. B. Bury, Otto Seeck, Ernest Stein, Fergus Millar, Ramsay Macmullen, Timothy Barnes, Robert Markus, Peter Brown, W. H. C. Frend, A. Demandt, A. Dihle, Victor Saxer, C. Markschies. On the earlier period Robert M. Grant. Relevant articles are gathered in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt (ANRW) II 23.

IV. Other Works

Alès, A. d', La Théologie de Tertullien (Paris, 1905).

—— La Théologie de S. Cyprien (Paris, 1922).

Alfaric, P., L'Évolution intellectuelle de S. Augustin, i [all published] (Paris, 1918).

Allberry, C. R. A., A Manichaean Psalm‐Book (Stuttgart, 1938).

Amand, D., L'Ascèse monastique de S. Basile (Maredsous, 1949).

Armstrong, A. H. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge, 1967).

Athanassiadi, P., Julian: An Intellectual Biography (London, 1992).

—— (ed.), Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 1999).

Atiya, A. S., A History of Eastern Christianity (London, 1968).

Aubineau, M., Hésychius de Jérusalem, 2 vols. (Paris, 1976–80).

Audet, J. P., La Didaché (Paris, 1958).

Badewien, J., Geschichtstheologie und Sozialkritik im Werk Salvians von Marseille (Göttingen, 1980).

Bagnall, Roger, Egypt in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 1993).

—— Cameron, Alan, Schwartz, S. R., and Worp, K. A. (eds.), Consuls of the Later Roman Empire (Atlanta, Ga., 1987).

15. Banniard, M., Genèse culturelle de l'Europe, Ve–VIIe siècle (Paris, 1989).

16. —— Viva voce: communication écrite et communication orale du VIe au IXe siècle en Occident latin (Paris, 1992).

Bardy, G., Paul de Samosate, 2nd edn. (Paris, 1929).

—— Recherches sur Lucien d'Antioche et son école (Paris, 1936).

Barnard, L. W., Athenagoras (Paris, 1972).

—— The Council of Serdica (Sofia, 1983).

(p.699) Barnard, L. W., Studies in Church History and Patristics (Thessaloniki, 1978).

Barnes, T. D., ‘The Editions of Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 21 (1980), 191–201.

—— Constantine and Eusebius (Cambridge, Mass., 1981).

—— The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge, Mass., 1982).

—— Tertullian, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1985).

—— Athanasius and Constantius (Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

Bauer, W., Rechtgläubigkeit und Ketzerei im ältesten Christentum, 2nd edn. (Tübingen, 1964) = Orthodoxy and Heresy in Earliest Christianity (London, 1972).

Baumstark, A., Liturgie comparée, 3rd edn. (Chevetogne, 1953) = Comparative Literature, tr. F. L. Cross (London, 1958).

Baynes, N. H., Constantine the Great and the Christian Church (London, 1932; 2nd edn. 1972).

—— Byzantine Studies and Other Essays (London, 1955).

Beck, H. G., Kirche und theologische Literatur im byzantinischen Reich (Munich, 1969).

Bell, H. I., Jews and Christians in Egypt (London, 1924).

——‘Evidences of Christianity in Egypt during the Roman Period’, Harvard Theological Review, 37 (1944), 185–208.

—— Cults and Creeds in Graeco‐Roman Egypt (Liverpool, 1953).

Berkhof, H., Die Theologie des Eusebius von Caesarea (Amsterdam, 1939).

Berthier, A., Les Vestiges du christianisme antique dans la Numidie centrale (Algiers, 1942).

Bidez, J., Vie de l'empereur Julien (Paris, 1930; 2nd edn. 1965).

Bienert, W. A., Dionysius von Alexandrien (Berlin, 1978).

Binns, J., Ascetics and Ambassadors for Christ (Oxford, 1994).

Binns, J. W. (ed.), Latin Literature of the Fourth Century (London, 1974).

Biondi, D., Il diritto romano cristiano, 3 vols. (Milan, 1952–4).

Bonner, G., St Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies, 2nd edn. (Norwich, 1986).

—— God's Decree and Man's Destiny (London, 1987).

Bousset, W., Apophthegmata (Tübingen, 1923).

Bowder, D., The Age of Constantine and Julian (London, 1978).

Bowersock, G. W., Julian the Apostate (London, 1978).

—— Hellenism in Late Antiquity (Ann Arbor, 1990).

—— Martyrdom and Rome (Cambridge, 1995).

Bradbury, Scott, Severus of Minorca: Letter on the Conversion of the Jews (Oxford, 1996).

Brakke, D., Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism (Oxford, 1995).

Braun, R., Deus Christianorum (Paris, 1962).

Bregman, J., Synesius of Cyrene (Berkeley, 1982).

Brennecke, H. C., Hilarius von Poitiers und die Bischofsopposition gegen Konstantius II. (Berlin, 1984).

—— Studien zur Geschichte der Homöer (Tübingen, 1988).

Brown, P. R. L., Augustine of Hippo (London, 1967; 2nd edn. Berkeley, 2000).

—— Religion and Society in the Age of Saint Augustine (London, 1972).

—— The Making of Late Antiquity (Cambridge, Mass., 1978).

(p.700) Brown, P. R. L., The Cult of the Saints (London, 1981).

—— Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (London, 1982).

—— The Body and Society (New York, 1988).

—— Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity (Madison, Wis., 1992).

—— Authority and the Sacred (Cambridge, 1995).

—— The Rise of Western Christendom (Oxford, 1996).

Browning, R., The Emperor Julian (London, 1975).

Burkitt, F. C., The Religion of the Manichees (Cambridge, 1925).

Burton‐Christie, D., The Word in the Desert (Oxford, 1992).

Butler, E. C., The Lausiac History of Palladius, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1898–1904).

Buytaert, E. M., L'Héritage littéraire d'Eusèbe d'Émèse (Louvain, 1949).

Cameron, Alan, Claudian (Oxford, 1970).

—— and Long, J., Barbarians and Politics at the Court of Arcadius (Berkeley, 1993).

Cameron, Averil, Agathias (Oxford, 1970).

—— Procopius and the Sixth Century (London, 1985).

—— with Hall, S. G. (tr., comm.), Eusebius: Life of Constantine (Oxford, 1999).

Campenhausen, H. von, Ambrosius von Mailand als Kirchenpolitiker (Berlin, 1929).

—— Die asketische Heimatlosigkeit im altkirchlichen und frühmittelalterlichen Mönchtum (Tübingen, 1930); repr. in id., Tradition und Leben (Tübingen, 1960), 290–17 = Tradition and Life in the Church, tr. A. V. Littledale (London, 1968), 290–317.

—— Kirchliches Amt und geistliche Vollmacht in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (Tübingen, 1953) = Ecclesiastical Authority and Spiritual Power in the Church of the First Three Centuries, tr. J. A. Baker (London, 1969; repr. 1997).

—— Die Entstehung der christlichen Bibel (Tübingen, 1968) = The Formation of the Christian Bible, tr. J. A. Baker (London, 1972).

—— Die Idee des Martyriums in der alten Kirche, 2nd edn. (Göttingen, 1964).

Cavadini, J. C. (ed.), Gregory the Great (Notre Dame, Ind., 1995).

Cavalcanti, E., Studi eunomiani (Rome, 1976).

Cavallera, F., Le Schisme d'Antioche (Paris, 1905).

—— Saint Jérôme: sa vie et son œuvre, 2 vols. (Louvain, 1922).

Chadwick, Henry, ‘Enkrateia’, Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, v (1962), 343–65.

—— Early Christianity and the Classical Tradition (Oxford, 1966).

——‘Florilegium’, tr. K. Engemann, Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, vii (1969), 1131–59.

—— Priscillian of Avila (Oxford, 1976; repr. 1999).

——‘Gewissen’, tr. Heinzgerd Brakmann, Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, x (1978), 1025–1107.

—— Boethius (Oxford, 1981; repr. 1999).

—— History and Thought of the Early Church (London, 1982).

—— Augustine (Oxford, 1986; repr. 2001).

—— Saint Augustine: Confessions (Oxford, 1991).

—— Heresy and Orthodoxy in the Early Church (Aldershot, 1991).

——‘Humanität’, tr. Georg Schöllgen, Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, xvi (1994), 663–711.

(p.701) Chadwick, Henry, Antike Schriftauslegung (Berlin, 1998).

Chadwick, Owen, John Cassian, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1968).

Chapman, J., Studies on the Early Papacy (London, 1928).

Chesnut, G., The First Church Historians (Paris, 1977).

Chesnut, R. C., Three Monophysite Christologies (Oxford, 1976).

Chitty, D. J., The Desert a City (Oxford, 1966).

Clark, E. A., Ascetic Piety and Women's Faith (Lampeter, 1986).

—— The Origenist Controversy: The Cultural Construction of an Early Christian Debate (Princeton, 1992).

—— The Life of Melania the Younger (New York, 1984).

Clark, Gillian, Augustine: The Confessions (Cambridge, 1993).

Clarke, W. K. L., St. Basil the Great: A Study in Monasticism (Cambridge, 1913).

—— (tr.) The Lausiac History of Palladius (London, 1918).

Cochrane, C. N., Christianity and Classical Culture (Oxford, 1940).

Coleman Norton, P. R., Roman State and Christian Church, 3 vols. (London, 1966).

Collins, R. J. H., Early Medieval Spain (London, 1983).

Courcelle, P., Les Lettres grecques en Occident de Macrobe à Cassiodore (Paris, 1948) = Late Latin Writers and their Greek Sources, tr. H. Wedeck (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).

—— Les Confessions de S. Augustin dans la tradition littéraire (Paris, 1965).

—— Recherches sur les Confessions de S. Augustin, 2nd edn. (Paris, 1968).

Courtois, C., Les Vandales et l'Afrique (Paris, 1955; repr. Aalen, 1964).

Cracco Ruggini, L., Il paganesimo romano tra religione e politica, 283394 d.C. (Memoria della Academia de Lincei, ser. VIII, 23/1; Rome, 1979).

Creed, J. L., Lactantius: De mortibus persecutorum (Oxford, 1984).

Croke, B., and Emmett, A., History and Historians in Late Antiquity (Sydney, 1983).

Crouzel, H., Origène (Paris, 1984) = Origen, tr. A. S. Worrall (Edinburgh, 1989).

Dagens, C., S. Grégoire le Grand: culture et experience chrétiennes (Paris, 1977).

Dagron, G., Vie et miracles de S. Thècle (Brussels, 1978).

Dal Covolo, E. (ed.), Storia della teologia, i (Rome, 1995).

Daniélou, J., Platonisme et théologie mystique, 2nd edn. (Paris, 1953).

Dassmann, E., Die Frömmigkeit des Kirchenvaters Ambrosius von Mailand (Münster, 1965).

Daube, D., The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism (London, 1956).

Deane, H. A., The Political and Social Ideas of St Augustine (New York, 1963).

Decret, F., Aspects du manichéisme dans l'Afrique romaine (Paris, 1974).

—— Mani et la tradition manichéenne (Paris, 1974).

Deichmann, F. W., Ravenna: Hauptstadt des spätantiken Abendlandes (Stuttgart, 1958–89).

—— Einführung in die christliche Archäologie (Darmstadt, 1983).

—— Rom, Ravenna, Konstantinopel und Naher Osten: Gesammelte Studien zur spätantiken Architektur, Kunst und Geschichte (Stuttgart, 1982).

Delehaye, H., Les Légendes grecques des saints militaires (Paris, 1909).

—— Les Passions des martyrs et les genres littéraires (Brussels, 1921; 2nd edn. 1966).

—— Les Saints stylites (Brussels, 1923).

—— Les Origines du culte des martyrs (Brussels, 1933).

(p.702) Delehaye, H., Les Légendes hagiographiques, 4th edn. (Brussels, 1955) = The Legends of the Saints, tr. Donald Attwater (London, 1962).

Devreesse, H., Essai sur Théodore de Mopsueste (Studi e Testi, 141; Vatican City, 1940).

Di Berardino, A., and Studer, B. (eds.), Storia della teologia, i (Casale Monferrato, 1993).

Diesner, H. J., Isidor von Sevilla und seine Zeit (Stuttgart, 1973).

Digeser, E. D., The Making of a Christian Empire: Lactantius and Rome (Ithaca, NY, 2000).

Doignon, J., Hilaire de Poitiers (Paris, 1971).

Dolbeau, F., Augustin: Vingt‐six sermons au peuple d'Afrique (Paris, 1996).

Dölger, F. J., Ichthys, 5 vols. (Münster, 1922–40).

—— Sol Salutis (Münster, 1925).

—— Antike und Christentum, 6 vols. (Münster, 1929–40; repr. 1975).

Dörries, H., Symeon von Mesopotamien (Texte und Untersuchungen, 55/1; Leipzig, 1941).

—— De Spiritu Sancto (Göttingen, 1956).

—— Wort und Stunde, i (Göttingen, 1966).

—— Die Theologie des Makarios/Symeon (Göttingen, 1978).

Downey, G. A., A History of Antioch in Syria from Seleucus to the Arab Conquest (Princeton, 1961).

Draguet, R., Julien d'Halicarnasse (Louvain, 1924).

Drake, H. A., Constantine and the Bishops (Baltimore, Md., 2000).

150. Dreuille, C. de, L'Église et la mission au VIe siècle (Paris, 2000).

Drijvers, H. J. W., Bardaisan of Edessa (Assen, 1966).

Drinkwater, J. F., and Elton, H. (eds.), Fifth‐Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity? (Cambridge, 1992).

Duchesne, L., Liber Pontificalis, 2 vols. (Paris, 1886–92); reissued with suppl. vol. by C. Vogel (Paris, 1955).

—— Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule, 3 vols. (Paris, 1894–1915).

—— Histoire ancienne de l'Église, 3 vols. (Paris, 1906–10) = Early History of the Christian Church (London, 1909–24).

156. —— L'Église au VIe siècle (Paris, 1926).

Dudden, F. Homes, Gregory the Great, 2 vols. (London, 1905).

—— The Life and Times of St. Ambrose, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1935).

Dulaey, M., Le Rêve dans la vie et la pensée de saint Augustin (Paris, 1973).

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