This appendix applies what has been learnt in the De Interpretatione to another famous discussion of contradiction. In Metaphysics, ? Aristotle attempts to establish the principle that the same thing cannot both hold and not hold of the same subject. This ’Principle of Contradiction’ is primitive and indemonstrable, but those who deny it, he believes, can be refuted. To do this, he employs material from the early chapters of the De Interpretatione. ’Being a man’ and ’being a not man’ have separate significations, and if a word 'signifies’, then it must stand as a conventional token for some real existent entity. From this the refutation of his opponents follows.
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