This important technique, like the contradiction argument discussed in Appendix I, depends on the concept of signification established in the De Interpretatione. The expansion of a word by substituting a phrase with the same signification is much used by Aristotle, in the Topics, Sophistic Refutations, and elsewhere. Moreover, in cases of multiple signification many phrases may be substituted for a single name: thus the question ’In how many ways is it said?’ leads to the discovery of multiple phrases (’logoi’), each expressing one aspect of an ambiguous term.
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