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Enchanted EveningsThe Broadway Musical from Show Boat to Sondheim$

Geoffrey Block

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195167306

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195167306.001.0001

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Title Pages

Title Pages

Enchanted Evenings
Oxford University Press

(p.i) Enchanted Evenings (p.ii)

(p.iii) Enchanted Evenings

(p.295) Synopses

(p.303) Discography: Selected Original, Revival, Film, and Studio Casts

Title Pages

(p.iv) Title Pages

  • Oxford New York
  • Auckland Bangkok
  • Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai Dar es Salaam
  • Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata
  • Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne
  • Mexico City Nairobi São Paulo Shanghai
  • Taipei Tokyo Toronto
  • Copyright ©1997 by Oxford University Press, Inc.
  • First published by Oxford University Press, Inc., 1997
  • First issued as an Oxford University Press paperback, 2004
  • 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016
  • Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press
  • All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
  • stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
  • electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
  • without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.
  • Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
  • Block, Geoffrey Holden.
  • Enchanted evenings: the Broadway musical from
  • Show Boat to Sondheim/Geoffrey Block,
  • p. cm.
  • Includes discography (p.), bibliographical references
  • (p.), and index.
  • ISBN 0–19–510791–8 (cloth) ISBN 0–19–516730–9 (pbk.)
  • 1. Musicals—New York (State)—New York—
  • History and criticism.
  • I. Title.
  • ML1711.8.N3B56 1997
  • 782.1'4'097471—dc21 96–53477
  • As this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices,
  • pages v–vi constitute an extension of the copyright page.
  • 1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2
  • Printed in the United States of America
  • on acid-free paper

Anything Goes

Reno Sweeney (Ethel Merman), an evangelist turned bar hostess, gets such a kick out of Billy Crocker (William Gaxton) that she boards a Europe-bound liner to dissuade him from pursuing Hope Harcourt (Bettina Hall). Although Billy dreams of Hope all through the night, Hope is determined to marry an English peer. Crocker has boarded without a ticket, so is forced to adopt a number of disguises. Also aboard is a wistful little man, the Reverend Dr. Moon (Victor Moore), whom J. Edgar Hoover has branded “Public Enemy 13.” Moon's ambition is to rise to the top of Hoover's list. With a minister and former evangelist as passengers the captain hopes to cheer his Depression-ridden travelers with a revival meeting. Reno obliges with a rousing anthem directed at the archangel Gabriel. On landing, Hope discovers she has become an heiress. She drops her Englishman and consents to marry Billy. The Englishman turns his attention to Reno, while Moon, learning he has been judged harmless and dropped from the FBI list, walks away muttering nasty things about Hoover.


When Billy Bigelow (John Raitt), a New England carnival barker, falls in love with Julie Jordan (Jan Clayton), he proves so shy that he can only convey his feelings by suggesting what might happen “If I Loved You.” Nonetheless, by the time “June Is Bustin' Out All Over,” he wins Julie. Later he discovers she is pregnant, so he (p.296) agrees to join the scowling Jigger Craigin (Murvyn Vye) in a robbery to earn extra money. The plan misfires, and Billy kills himself rather than be caught. Before a heavenly judge, he pleads for another chance to return to earth, to redeem himself and see his daughter. But when the daughter refuses his gift of a star he has stolen from the sky he slaps her and must return to purgatory. The widowed Julie and her child are left to continue alone in the world, in stark contrast to her old friend Carrie Pipperidge (Jean Darling), who has made a prosperous marriage to the rich Mr. Snow (Eric Mattson). Julie's sole comforter, Nettie Fowler (Christine Johnson), assures her “You'll Never Walk Alone.”

The Cradle will Rock

Scene 1. Street Corner: In “Moll's Song” a prostitute (Olive Stanton) explains how the two dollars she earns on two days each week in Steeltown barely provides enough to eat for the five days her “efforts ain't required.” A Gent enters, offers the Moll thirty cents, harasses her, and departs when a Dick comes to protect the Moll in exchange for sexual favors. A Cop instructed to pick up union workers mistakenly arrests the Liberty Committee, a group selected and cultivated by Mr. Mister (Ralph MacBane) to destroy the burgeoning attempts to form a union. The Liberty Committee and the Moll are taken to Night Court.

Scene 2. Night Court: The Liberty Committee explains how they were arrested as they were attempting to stop a union speech. Since they had gathered together for this purpose, and since Mr. Mister gave strict orders to “arrest anyone forming a crowd,” the police arrested the Liberty Committee instead of Larry Foreman (Howard da Silva), “the man who made the speech.” Significantly, the Moll and Harry Druggist (John Adair), the only nonmembers of the Liberty Committee to be arrested—the Moll for soliciting her body and the Druggist his soul—sing their exchange to the main theme from “Nickel Under the Foot.” Harry explains that since “they won't buy our milkwhite bodies, / So we kinda sell out in some other way—to Mr. Mister.” While waiting for the latter to arrive at Night Court and bail them out, Harry Druggist explains in flashbacks how each of the Liberty Committee has sold out.

Scene 3. Mission: In a flashback sequence that moves from 1915 to 1917, Reverend Salvation (Charles Niemeyer) changes his sermon from peace to war in response to the requests of Mrs. Mister (Peggy Coudray), who represents her husband's attempts to profit from World War I.

Scene 4. Lawn of Mr. Mister's Home: Junior Mister (Maynard Holmes) and Sister Mister (Dulce Fox), Mr. Mister's vapid children, sing “Croon-Spoon.” Editor Daily (Bert Weston) arrives and capitulates to the demands of Mr. Mister, the paper's new owner (“The Freedom of the Press”), and agrees to print whatever his boss wants. After Junior and Sister wildly exhibit their boredom in “Let's Do Something,” Editor Daily offers the bored Junior a post in “Honolulu” to get him out of the way of union trouble.

Scene 5. Drugstore: In a flashback Harry Druggist tells how he sold out to Mr. Mister six months earlier in order to keep the mortgage on his store, an act that (p.297) led to the death of his son as well as the loving Polish immigrant couple, Gus and Sadie (“Love Song”).

Scene 6. Hotel Lobby: The artists Yasha (Edward Fuller) and Dauber (Jules Schmidt) show nothing but loathing and contempt for “The Rich,” but nevertheless eagerly accept Mrs. Mister's invitation for additional patronage (“Ask Us Again”) and join Mr. Mister's Liberty Committee to obtain a free meal. Since they are apolitical artists who espouse “Art for Art's Sake,” Yasha and Dauber do not even want to know the cause the Liberty serves.

Scene 7. Night Court: After the Moll sings a complete version of “Nickel Under the Foot,” the Liberty Committee witnesses the long-awaited arrival of Larry Foreman, “the man who made the speech.” Foreman explains to the Moll in “Leaflets” (an underscored rhythm song) how he has been formally charged with “Incitin' to Riot.” He also asserts the power of the unions in the title song.

Scene 8. Faculty Room: President Prexie accedes to Mr. Mister's demand for compulsory military training in exchange for funding. Although the music is underscored almost throughout, this is the only scene without a musical number.

Scene 9. Dr. Specialist's Office: Dr. Specialist (Frank Marvel) lies in order to obtain his coveted research grants controlled by Mr. Mister. Ella Hammer (Blanche Collins) tells the press how her brother, Joe Hammer (“Joe Worker”), gets “gypped” and abused by a corrupt system.

Scene 10. Night Court: Larry Foreman refuses to be bought by Mr. Mister, the boilermakers agree to join the steel workers, and a union chorus reprises “The Cradle Will Rock.”

Guys and Dolls

Nathan Detroit (Sam Levene), who runs the oldest established permanent floating crap game in New York, is hard up for money, a special problem since the biggest plunger of all, Sky Masterson (Robert Alda), is in town, ready to play. When Sky boasts that he can have any woman he wants, Nathan sees his chance. He wagers that Sky cannot win any woman Nathan points to. Sky takes the bet. At that moment, Sister Sarah (Isabel Bigley) of the Salvation Army comes marching by, and Nathan points to her. When Sky wins big at dice he forces the losers to attend a Salvation Army rally in order to help his pursuit of Sarah, whom he earlier had lured to Havana. In the end she converts him to her ways. Meanwhile Nathan agrees to wed Adelaide (Vivian Blaine), a night club singer with whom he has had a fourteen-year courtship.

Kiss Me, Kate

While cast members of a revival of The Taming of the Shrew celebrate “Another Op'nin', Another Show,” the show's stars, Fred Graham (Alfred Drake) and Lilli Vanessi (Patricia Morison), celebrate the first anniversary of their divorce. They take time from their bickering to recall they had once sung “Wunderbar” in a long (p.298) forgotten operetta. Lilli receives a bouquet from Fred, leading her to believe he still loves her, and she confesses she is still “So In Love” with him, but when she learns the flowers are meant for someone else she determines to be revenged. Fred's problems are compounded when another member of the company, Bill Calhoun (Harold Lang), signs Fred's name to a gambling debt. Opening night is peppered by warfare between Fred and Lilli, and by demands by two comic hoods for payment of the debt. Fred convinces the hoods that they must force Lilli to perform. Bill's promiscuous girl, Lois (Lisa Kirk), helps him try to reform by promising she will be “Always True to You in My Fashion,” and the hoods eventually leave when the debt proves no longer valid on a technicality. They decide it might be more profitable to “Brush Up Your Shakespeare.” In the course of the evening, Fred and Lilli recognize they still do love each other.

Lady in the Dark

Liza Elliott (Gertrude Lawrence), a successful but greatly troubled fashion editor of a prestigious fashion magazine, reluctantly consults the psychiatrist, Dr. Brooks (Donald Randolph). In two sessions she relates musical dreams of a glamour girl (the Glamour Dream) and marriage (the Wedding Dream) that contrast markedly with the state of her waking life. In her dreams Liza is the toast of the town; in real life she dresses in dreary clothing and protects her emotional vulnerabilities in a dispassionate affair with a married man, Kendall Nesbitt (Bert Lytell). Her waking world unravels still further when Nesbitt offers to leave his wife and marry Liza. In her third dream, the Circus Dream, Liza goes on trial for her indecisiveness.

The people close to Liza appear metaphorically in her dreams. In the Circus Dream Nesbitt is the first witness for the prosecution, her nemesis Charley Johnson (MacDonald Carey) is the prosecuting attorney, the movie star Randy Curtis (Victor Mature) serves as the attorney in her defense, and the magazine's photographer Russell Paxton (Danny Kaye) appears as the Ringmaster. In a final session Dr. Brooks helps Liza understand the childhood trauma behind her fear of her femininity and success. As her repression vanishes, she is finally able to complete the song “My Ship,” which has haunted her throughout the play. Having achieved this understanding as well as her feminine identity, Liza realizes that she really loves Johnson.

The Most Happy Fella

Rosabella (Jo Sullivan) comes to the Napa Valley expecting to marry a handsome young man who has sent her his picture and proposed by mail. She is certain that she has at last found “Somebody, Somewhere” to really love her. But she soon discovers the handsome man, Joe (Art Lund), is merely a hired hand, and that the man who proposed is actually an aging Italian vintner, Tony (Robert Weede). He had sent her Joe's picture, fearing one of himself would have disheartened her. He (p.299) believes that she will quickly become reconciled and make him “The Most Happy Fella” in all of the valley. The shock, however, drives Rosabella into Joe's arms. Eventually she realizes that Tony is an honorable, loving man. Bit by bit, she and Tony admit that they are “Happy To Make Your Acquaintance.” When he offers to accept not only her but the baby she is now pregnant with, she comes to love him.

My Fair Lady

Coming from a performance at Covent Garden, Professor Henry Higgins (Rex Harrison) meets a fellow scholar, Colonel Pickering (Robert Coote), and a somewhat raucous Cockney flower girl, Eliza Doolittle (Julie Andrews). Higgins casually mentions to Pickering that given a little time he could turn a flower girl into a lady, so when Eliza appears later at his residence asking him to make good on his boast, Higgins accepts Pickering's wager on the affair. It is a long, hard struggle, but by the time Eliza can properly enunciate “The Rain in Spain” and Higgins takes her to Ascot, her pronunciation is perfect—even if her conversation is not. Later she is successfully passed off as a lady at a ball, and she is so pleased that she confesses, “I Could Have Danced All Night.” At one point Higgins must bribe Eliza's father, Alfred P. Doolittle (Stanley Holloway), to stay out of the girl's life. With his newfound wealth Doolittle recognizes that he must subscribe to middle-class morality by marrying, so he urges his friends to “Get Me to the Church on Time.” But Higgins has no objections to rich, lovesick Freddy Eynsford-Hill (John Michael King) courting Eliza. So lovesick is Freddy he is happy merely to be “On the Street Where You Live.” Nevertheless, Eliza recognizes she is too intelligent for the charming but vacuous young man, so casts her lot with the reluctant Higgins, who is appalled but admits “I've Grown Accustomed to Her Face.” When Eliza returns Higgins can only respond, “Where the devil are my slippers?”

One Touch of Venus

Rodney Hatch (Kenny Baker), an unassuming barber, has come to shave Whitelaw Savory (John Boles). The latter, a prominent eccentric art collector, has recently acquired a statue of the Anatolian Venus for his Foundation of Modern Art, because it reminded him of a lost love. When Hatch is left alone, he foolishly puts the ring intended for his fiancee Gloria Kramer (Ruth Bond) on the statue's finger, and the statue of Venus (Mary Martin) comes to life ready to love the man who summoned her. After some initial resistance, Venus wins Hatch's affections and disposes of the shrewish Gloria. She also easily evades Savory's agents, who want to “Catch Hatch” for allegedly stealing the statue. When Venus comes to realize the quotidian nature of her monogamous future with Hatch, she returns to Mount Olympus and her statue returns to stone. As a parting gesture she arranges the descent of a more suitable partner for the prosaic but endearing barber.

(p.300) On Your Toes

Junior Dolan (Ray Bolger), music professor and former child vaudeville star, presents his student's jazz composition, “Slaughter on Tenth Avenue,” to the Russian Ballet. Prima Ballerina Vera Barnova (Tamara Geva) takes a fancy to Junior and sees to it that the ballet is produced with Junior dancing the male lead. Vera's former partner and lover, Konstantine Morrosine (Demetrios Vilan), becomes extremely jealous, and during a performance, tries to turn a stage killing into a real one. At the last minute, Junior is warned by his devoted student, Frankie (Doris Carson).

Pal Joey

Joey (Gene Kelly), a handsome, small-time dancer, begins his courtship of innocent Linda English (Leila Ernst) by proclaiming about her virtues, “I Could Write a Book.” Joey himself is notably short on virtues, so when Vera Simpson (Vivienne Segal), a rich, callous, past-her-prime matron, finds herself “Bewitched” by him and offers to set him up in luxury with his own night club, he all but drops Linda. In time Joey's selfishness and egotism pall even for the tolerant Vera. Matters come to a head when Linda tells Vera of a plan to blackmail her by threatening to tell Mr. Simpson of the liaison. The women agree that as far as Joey is concerned they no longer want him, and the other can “Take Him.” Having lost both women Joey wanders off into the night to find another romance.

Porgy and Bess

When Clara (Abbie Mitchell) fails to lull her baby to sleep with a lullaby about the languorous virtues of “Summertime,” her husband, Jake (Edward Matthews), tries with “A Woman Is a Sometime Thing.” One reason the baby has trouble sleeping is that Catfish Row is a noisy, dangerous place, where the menfolk are drinking and gambling. The men tease the crippled Porgy (Todd Duncan), who rides around in a goat-cart, about his love for Crown's girl, Bess (Anne Brown). Crown (Warren Coleman) himself gets into a fight with his fellow gambler, Robbins (Henry Dobbins), and stabs him to death. Robbins's wife, Serena (Ruby Elzy), is left to wail “My Man's Gone Now.” Crown flees, leaving Porgy, who has been content to boast “I Got Plenty o' Nuttin',” free to court Bess. Aranging for her to get a divorce, he tells her, “Bess, You Is My Woman Now.” The neighbors all go on a picnic where a glib drug peddler, Sportin' Life (John W. Bubbles), tells them of his cynical ideas about the Bible, insisting, “It Ain't Necessarily So.” Crown suddenly appears, and he and Porgy fight, with Porgy killing Crown with Crown's own knife. Porgy is sent to jail. When he is released he learns that Sportin' Life has taken Bess to New York, so he sets out in his goat-cart to retrieve her.

(p.301) Show Boat

When Cap'n Andy (Charles Winninger) and wife Parthy Ann (Edna May Oliver) bring their show boat Cotton Blossom into town for a performance, their daughter Magnolia (Norma Terris) meets a handsome professional gambler, Gaylord Ravenal (Howard Marsh). The youngsters fall in love at first sight, although they profess it is “Make Believe.” Magnolia seeks advice on what to do from a black workhand, Joe (Jules Bledsoe), who tells her probably “01' Man River” alone can answer her but that the river “don't say nothin’.” The show's leading lady, Julie (Helen Morgan), begins to understand Magnolia's situation and, recalling an old folk song, tells her how she too “Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man” of hers. But when Julie is accused of having Negro blood she is forced to leave the boat, taking the leading man with her. Magnolia and Gaylord are pressed into assuming the leads. Soon enough they are telling each other “You Are Love.” They marry and head off. Years pass. At the Chicago World's Fair they seem amazed not only at the sights but at how their love has grown, and ask, “Why Do I Love You?” But eventually Gaylord's gambling costs him all his money, so he deserts Magnolia. She applies for a job singing at a night club where Julie, now a drunkard, is rehearsing her “Bill” number. Julie recognizes Magnolia and sacrifices what is left of her own career to help Magnolia begin hers. When Cap'n Andy finds his daughter there he persuades her to return to the Cotton Blossom. More years pass. One day an aging Gaylord returns. To his relief he is welcomed by Magnolia.

West Side Story

The story is set among two rival youth gangs in New York City in the 1950s, the longer-established Jets, led by Riff, and the Puerto Rican newcomers, the Sharks, led by Bernardo. Riff intends to meet Bernardo at a community dance—neutral territory—and challenge him to a fight for control of the neighborhood. Tony (Larry Kert), a former Jet and Riff's best friend, meets Maria (Carol Lawrence), Bernardo's sister, at the dance, and they fall immediately in love. They meet that night on her fire escape, and again the next day at the shop where she works, where they enact a mock wedding ceremony. Tony tries to intervene at the rumble but succeeds only in accidentally permitting Bernardo to kill Riff; in a rage, Tony himself kills Bernardo. Maria manages to forgive him and they decide to run away together. She sends a message to Tony who is in hiding with the Jets, by Bernardo's girlfriend Anita, but the gang so abuse her that she angrily tells them Maria is dead. Tony, in despair, runs through the streets begging to be killed; he discovers that Maria is alive just as a Shark shoots him. Maria in her grief manages to persuade everyone to let the retaliation stop, giving a hint of hope for reconciliation as the play ends. (p.302)

Anything Goes

Composer and original cast (1934, 1935, and 1947): Cole Porter's “Anything Goes” in New York and London with the composer and members of the original 1934 cast. Ethel Merman, Jack Whiting, The Foursome, Jeanne Aubert, Sidney Howard, Porter (vocals and piano). Smithsonian American Musical Theater Series DPM1–0284 R 007. Contents: “I Get a Kick Out of You,” “Youʼre the Top,” “Blow, Gabriel, Blow” (Merman), “All Through the Night” (Whiting), “Blow, Gabriel, Blow” (Aubert), “Youʼre the Top” (Whiting and Aubert), “Sailor's Chanty,” “Gypsy in Me” (The Foursome), “Youʼre the Top,” “Anything Goes,” “Be Like the Bluebird” (Porter), and “Be Like the Bluebird” (Howard). Porter's rendition of “Youʼre the Top” (October 26, 1934) was reissued on the compact disc Showstoppers: Historic Victor Recordings BMG 9590–2–R.*

Revival cast (1962): Hal Linden, Eileen Rodgers, Kenneth Mars, Ted Simons (conductor). Epic Footlight Series FLS 15100 (S); reissued on Time-Life P 15602 (S), set STL AM02 with Kiss Me, Kate and Can-Can (set title, Cole Porter). Missing: “Where Are the Men?”

(p.304) Revival cast (1987): Patti Lupone, Howard McGillin, Bill McCutcheon, Edward Strauss (conductor). RCA 7769–4 RC.

Studio cast (1989): Kim Criswell, Cris Groenendaal, Jack Gilford, Frederica von Stade, John McGlinn (conductor). EMI/Angel CDC 7–49848–2.


Original cast (1945): John Raitt, Jan Clayton, Jean Darling, Christine Johnson, Joseph Littau (conductor). Decca DLP–8003; reissue. MCA 2033. Missing: “Geraniums in the Winder” and some dance numbers.

Film cast (1956): Gordon MacRae, Shirley Jones, Barbara Ruick, Robert Rounseville, Cameron Mitchell, Alfred Newman (conductor). Capitol SW 694. Missing: “Geraniums in the Winder,” “The Highest Judge of All,” and some dance numbers.

Studio cast (1988): Barbara Cook, Samuel Ramey, Sarah Brightman, David Rendall, Maureen Forrester, and Paul Gemignani (conductor). MCA Classics MCAD 6209.

The Cradle Will Rock

Composer and original cast (1938): Olive Stanton, Charles Niemeyer, Bert Weston, Edward Fuller, Jules Schmidt, John Adair, Ralph MacBane, Peggy Coudray, Maynard Holmes, Dulce Fox, George Fairchild, Blanche Collins, Howard da Silva, Marc Blitzstein (narration and piano). Musicraft Records No. 18; reissued American Legacy T 1001. Nearly complete.*

Composer and studio cast (1957): Marc Blitzstein Discuss His Theater Compositions. Evelyn Lear, Roddy McDowall, Jane Connell, Alvin Epstein, Marc Blitzstein (piano). Spoken Arts 717. Spoken historical introduction by Blitzstein, “Nickel Under the Foot,” and Hotel Lobby Scene.

Revival cast (1964): Jerry Orbach, Lauri Peters, Clifford David, Rita Gardner, Micki Grant, Hal Buckley, Nancy Andrews, Gershon Kingsley (musical director and pianist). MGM SE 4289–2 OC (complete on two records).

London cast (1985): Patti Lupone, Randle Mell, Michael Barrett (musical director and pianist). That's Entertainment Records ZC TED 1105 (complete).


Original cast (1971): Alexis Smith, Gene Nelson, John McMartin, Yvonne DeCarlo, Dorothy Collins, Mary McCarty, Ethel Shutta, Victoria Mallory, Fifi DʼOrsay, Harold Hastings (conductor). Capitol SO 761.

(p.305) Concert cast (1985): Barbara Cook, Betty Comden, Adolph Green, Lee Remick, Mandy Patinkin, Licia Albanese, George Hearn, Phyllis Newman, Carol Burnett, Elaine Stritch, Paul Gemignani (conductor). RCA HBC2–7128.

Studio cast (1985): A Collector's Sondheim. Craig Lucas, Suzanne Henry, E. Martin Perry (conductor). Contents (dropped songs only): “All Things Bright and Beautiful,” “Uptown, Downtown,” “Who Could Be Blue?”, “Little White House,” “It Wasn't Meant to Happen,” and “Can That Boy Foxtrot!” RCA CRL4–5359. With the exception of “Can That Boy Foxtrot!” all songs above appear in Marry Me A little (1981) RCA ABL1–4159.

London cast (1987): Diana Rigg, Julia McKenzie, Daniel Massey, David Healy, Dolores Gray, Martin Koch (conductor). Geffen 24183–4.

Guys and Dolls

Composer and studio cast (c. 1950–1955): An Evening With Frank Loesser: Frank Loesser Performs Songs From His Hit Shows. DRG 5169 (CD). Contents: “Fugue for Tinhorns” (with Milton Delugg and Sue Bennett), “Iʼll Know,” “Luck Be A Lady,” “Iʼve Never Been In Love Before,” “Sit Down Youʼre Rockinʼ The Boat,” “Sue Me,” “Traveling Light” (unused), and “Adelaide” (from 1955 MGM film).

Original cast (1950): Robert Alda, Vivian Blaine, Sam Levene, Isabel Bigley, Pat Rooney, Sr., Stubby Kaye, Irving Actman (conductor). Decca 8036; reissue MCA 2034. Missing: “Havana” and “Crapshooter” dances.

Film cast (1955): Marlon Brando, Frank Sinatra, Jean Simmons, Jay Blackton (conductor). Decca ED 2332. Added: “A Woman in Love,” “Pet Me, Poppa,” and “Adelaide.”

Revival cast (1992): Peter Gallagher, Nathan Lane, Josie de Guzman, Faith Prince, Edward Strauss (conductor). RCA 09026–61317–2.

Kiss Me, Kate

Original cast (1949): Alfred Drake, Patricia Morison, Lisa Kirk, Harold Lang, Lorenzo Fuller, Harry Clark, and Jack Diamond, Pembroke Davenport (conductor). Columbia S 32609; reissued on Time-Life P 15602 (S), set STL AM02 with Anything Goes and Can-Can (set title, Cole Porter). Missing: “I Sing of Love,” “Act I Finale,” and some dance numbers.

Film cast (1953): Howard Keel, Kathryn Grayson, Ann Miller, Bobby Van, Tommy Rail, Keenan Wynn, James Whitmore, Bob Fosse, Andre Previn (conductor). MGM 3077. Added: “From This Moment On,” dropped from Out of This World.

(p.306) Original cast (1959): Alfred Drake, Patricia Morison, Lisa Kirk, Harold Lang, Lorenzo Fuller, Pembroke Davenport (conductor). Capitol ST AO 126. Contents same as Original cast 1949.

Studio cast (1990): Josephine Barstow, Thomas Hampson, Kim Criswell, George Dvorsky, Damon Evans, David Garrison, John McGlinn (conductor). EMI /Angel CDS 54033–2.

Lady in the Dark

Original cast (1941): Gertrude Lawrence, MacDonald Carey, Donald Randolph, Maurice Abravenal (conductor). AEI 1146. Contents: “Oh Fabulous One,” “One Life to Live,” “Girl of the Moment,” “It Looks Like Liza,” “The Saga of Jenny,” “My Ship,” and dialogue from act I, scenes 1, 2, 4, and 5. Lawrence's “My Ship” (February 23,1941) appears on Showstoppers: Historic Victor Recordings. BMG 9590–2 R (CD).

Studio recording (1950s): Arthur Winograd (conductor). MGM E 3334. Contents: “Dance of the Tumblers.”

Original cast: Danny Kaye Entertains. Columbia CL 931. Contents: “Tschaikowsky.”

Studio cast (1963): Risë Stevens, Adolph Green, John Reardon, Lehman Engel (conductor). Columbia OS 2390; reissued on Time-Life P 16374, set STL AM10 with One Touch of Venus and The Threepeeny Opera (set title, Kurt Weill); CD reissue MK44689. Missing: “Dance of the Tumblers.”

A Little Night Music

Original cast (1973): Len Cariou, Harold Hastings (conductor). Columbia KS 32265.

Merrily We Roll Along

Original cast (1981): Jim Walton, Ann Morrison, Lonny Price, Paul Gemignani (conductor). RCA CBL1–4197.

The Most Happy Fella

Composer and studio cast (1953): An Evening With Frank Loesser: Frank Loesser Performs Songs From His Hit Shows. DRG 5169 (CD). Act I, Scene 1, vocals by Maxene Andrews as Cleo and unidentified singers (contains previously unreleased material). Contents: “Ooh! My Feet!”, “How's About Tonight/House and Garden,” “The Letter,” and “Wanting To Be Wanted” (unused).

(p.307) Original cast (1956): Robert Weede, Jo Sullivan, Art Lund, Susan Johnson, Shorty Long, Mona Paulee, Arthur Rubin, Herbert Greene (conductor). Columbia 03L 240; reissued on Columbia Special Products C03L 240 (three LPs).

Revival cast (1992): Spiro Malas, Sophie Hay den, Scott Waara, Tim Stella (conductor). RCA 09026–61294–2 (two pianos).

My Fair Lady

Original cast (1956): Rex Harrison, Julie Andrews, Stanley Holloway, Robert Coote, Franz Allers (conductor). Columbia OL 5090 (M); reissued on Columbia Special Products AOL 5090 (M) and E/Philip RBL 1000 (M). Missing: “The Embassy Waltz.”

Film cast (1964): Rex Harrison, Audrey Hepburn (sung by Marni Nixon), Stanley Holloway, André Previn (conductor). Columbia KOL 8000; reissued on Columbia JS 2600. Missing: “The Embassy Waltz.”

Lyricist (1971): An Evening with Johnny Mercer, Alan Jay Lerner and Sammy Cahn Singing Their Own Songs. Contents (Lerner only): “Wouldn't It Be Loverly?,” “Oh Come to the Ball,” and spoken introduction to “On the Street Where You Live.” Book-of-the-Month-Club Records 70–5240.

One Touch of Venus

Composer (1943): Tryout: A Series of Private Rehearsal Recordings—Including Actual Performances by Kurt Weill and Ira Gershwin. DRG 904 (CD). Contents: “West Wind,” “Very Very Very,” “Wooden Wedding,” “Speak Low,” “The Jersey Plunk” (“Way Out West in Jersey”), “The Trouble With Women” (quartet), and “That's Him.”

Original cast (1943): Mary Martin, Kenny Baker, Maurice Abravanel (conductor). Decca DL 79122; reissued on AEI 1136; reissued on Time-Life P 16374, set STL AM10 with Lady in the Dark and The Threepeeny Opera (set title, Kurt Weill). Contents: “Iʼm a Stranger Here Myself,” “Forty Minutes for Lunch (ballet),” “Speak Low,” “West Wind,” “Foolish Heart,” “The Trouble with Women,” “That's Him,” “Wooden Wedding,” and “Venus in Ozone Heights (ballet).”

Studio cast (mainly): Ben Bagley's Kurt Weill Revisited. Paula Lawrence (original cast), Arthur Siegel, Chita Rivera, Jo Sullivan. Painted Smiles PS 1375; reissued 1989 on Painted Smiles PSCD 108. Contents: “One Touch of Venus,” “How Much Do I Love You,” “Dr. Crippen,” “Very, Very, Very,” “Vive la difference” (cut), and “Love in a Mist” (cut).

(p.308) On Your Toes

Original cast, revival cast, composer, studio cast (1936–1954)*

Original revival cast (1954): Vera Zorina, Bobby Van, Elaine Stritch, Ben Astar, Kay Coulter, Joshua Shelley, Nicholas Orloff, Jack Williams, George Church, Salvatore DellʼIsola (conductor). Decca DL 9015; reissued on Stet DS 15024. Missing: “La Princesse Zenobia Ballet.”

Original revival cast (1983): Lara Teeter, George S. Irving, Dina Merrill, George De La Pena, Christine Andreas, John Mauceri (conductor). Polydor 813667–1 Y 1.

Pal Joey

Original cast, revival cast, and studio cast (1950): Vivienne Segal, Harold Lang, Barbara Ashley, Beverly Fite, Kenneth Remo, Jo Hurt, Lehman Engel (conductor) (1940s lyrics and orchestrations). Columbia ML 54364; reissued on Columbia Special Products COL 4364. Missing: “Chicago” and “The Flower Garden of My Heart.”

Original revival cast, studio cast (1952): Helen Gallagher, Patricia Northrop, Elaine Stritch, Lewis Bolyard, Jane Froman, Dick Beavers, Max Meth (conductor) (1952 lyrics and orchestrations). Missing: Ballet (“Chez Joey”). Angel ZDM 0777–7–646962–2–1.

Film cast (1957): Frank Sinatra, Rita Hayworth (sung by Jo Ann Greer), Kim Novak (sung by Trudi Erwin), Morris Stoloff (conductor). Songs from original production: “Zip,” “Chicago,” “That Terrific Rainbow,” “Pal Joey,” and “Bewitched.” Songs interpolated from other Rodgers and Hart shows: “There's a Small Hotel” (On Your Toes [1936]), “My Funny Valentine” and “The Lady Is a Tramp” (Babes In Arms [1937]), and “I Didn't Know What Time It Was” (Too Many Girls” [1939]). Capitol W–912.

Porgy and Bess

Original cast (1935): Gershwin Performs Gershwin Rare Recordings 1931–1935. Music-masters 5062–2 C (CD). Porgy and Bess rehearsal performance, July 19, 1935, conducted by Gershwin. Contents: “Introduction,” “Summertime” (Abbie Mitchell), “A Woman Is a Sometime Thing” (Edward Matthews), Act I, scene 1: Finale, “My Man's Gone Now” (Ruby Elzy), and “Bess, You Is My Woman Now” (Todd Duncan, Anne Brown).

Studio cast (1936): George Gershwin Plays George Gershwin. Pearl Gemm CDS 9483 (CD). Lawrence Tibbett, Helen Jepson, Alexander Smallens (conductor). Selections (p.309) from Porgy and Bess, November 1935 (originally issued on Victor 11878/81). Contents: “It Ain't Necessarily So,” “The Buzzard Song,” “Scene: Summertime/Crapgame/ A Woman Is a Sometime Thing,” “Bess, You Is My Woman Now,” “I Got Plenty Oʼ Nuttinʼ,” “Where Is My Bess?,” “Summertime,” and “My Man's Gone Now.” Lawrence Tibbett's “I Got Plenty oʼ Nuttinʼ” (October 23,1935) appears on Showstoppers: Historic Victor Recordings. BMG 9590–2 R (CD).

Original cast (1940–1942): Todd Duncan, Anne Brown, Edward Matthews, Eva Jessye Choir, Alexander Smallens (conductor). Decca DL 9024; reissued on MCA 2035. Fourteen selections.*

Studio cast (1951): Lawrence Winters, Camilla Williams, Inez Matthews, Warren Coleman, Avon Long, J. Rosamond Johnson Chorus, Lehman Engel (conductor). Columbia OSL 163; reissued on Odyssey 32 36 0018 (nearly complete on three LPs).

Jazz recording (1957): Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Armstrong. Verve VE 2–2507.

Jazz recording (1958): Miles Davis, Gil Evans. Columbia PC 8085.

Studio cast (1963): Leontyne Price, William Warfield, McHenry Boatwright, John Bubbles, Skitch Henderson (conductor). RCA LSC 2679. Twelve selections.

Studio cast (1976): Willard White, Leona Mitchess, McHenry Boatwright, Florence Quivar, Barbara Hendricks, Cleveland Orchestra and Chorus, Lorin Maazel (conductor). London OSA 13116.

Opera production (1977): Clamma Dale, Donnie Ray Albert, Larry Marshall, Houston Opera Company. John DeMain (conductor). RCA ARL 3–2109.

Opera production (1986): Cynthia Haymon, Willard White, Damon Evans, Glyndebourne Festival Opera, Simon Rattle (conductor). EMI/Angel CDCC 49568.

Show Boat

Original cast (1928): Showstoppers: Historic Victor Recordings. BMG 9590–2 R (CD). Contents: “Ol’ Man River” (Paul Robeson, March 1,1928) and Bill” (Helen Morgan, February 14, 1928).

Original revival cast (1946): Jan Clayton, Carol Bruce, Charles Fredericks, Kenneth Spencer, Helen Dowdy, Edwin McArthur (conductor).

Film cast (1951): Kathryn Grayson, Howard Keel, William Warfield, Marge and Gower Champion, Ava Gardner, Adolph Deutsch (conductor). MGM E 3230.

(p.310) Original Lincoln Center revival cast (1966): Barbara Cook, Constance Towers, Stephen Douglass, David Wayne, William Warfield, Franz Allers (conductor). RCA LSO 1126.

London cast (1971): Cleo Laine, Thomas Carey, Lorna Dalla, Kenneth Nelson, Andrew Jobin, Ena Cabayo, Ray Cook (conductor). Stanyon Records 10048 (two LPs).

Studio cast (1988): Frederika von Stade, Teresa Stratas, Jerry Hadley, Paige OʼHara, David Garrison, Bruce Hubbard, John McGlinn (conductor). EMI/Angel CDS 7–49108–2.

Revival cast (1994): Rebecca Luker, Lonette McKee, Mark Jacoby, Elaine Stritch, Michel Bell, Gretha Boston, Robert Morse, Jeffrey Huard (conductor). Quality 257.

Sunday in the Park with George

Original cast (1984): Mandy Patinkin, Bernadette Peters, Charles Kimbrough, Barbara Bryne, Dana Ivey, Paul Gemignani (conductor). RCA HBC1–5042.

West Side Story

Original cast (1957): Larry Kert, Carol Lawrence, Chita Rivera, Max Goberman (conductor). Columbia OL 5230; reissued on Columbia S 32603. Missing: “Taunting.”

Film cast (1961): Natalie Wood (sung by Marni Nixon), Richard Beymer (sung by Jim Bryant), Rita Moreno (sung by Betty Wand), Russ Tamblyn, George Chakiris, John Green (conductor). Columbia OS 2070; reissued with previously unreleased masters on Sony SK 48211 (1992).

Studio cast (1985): Kiri Te Kanawa, José Carreras, Kurt Ollmann, Tatiana Troyanos, Leonard Bernstein (conductor). Deutsche Grammophon 415253–1/4.


*By the late 1980s all shows were issued in compact disc (the numbers given in this Discography) or tape formats. Many older long-playing cast recordings have also been reissued on CDs in recent years

Throughout, no attempt is made to honor the distinctions between conductor, musical director, or musical supervisor. The term “conductor” is used exclusively.

* See Hummel, vol. 1, 32.

* See Hummel, vol. 1, 430.

* See Hummel, vol. 1, 462.

See Hummel, vol. 1, 520–21 for a comprehensive listing of original Broadway and London cast excerpts between 1928 and 1936

Ibid., 522.