(p.250) Select Bibliography
(p.250) Select Bibliography
The sources for Marwar's history are varied and rich, though they differ in volume and in chronological coverage. A general survey of these can be had from A Guide to the Records in the Rajasthan State Archives (Government Press, Bikaner, 1991), and from Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur: Catalogue of Publications (Government of Rajasthan Publication, 1991). I have used the following categories of sources to study eighteenth-century Marwar.
Unpublished Archival Sources
Marwari Language/Local Vernaculars
The following bahis are preserved in the Jodhpur, Bikaner, and Jaipur sections at the Rajasthan State Archives, Bikaner (RSAB).
1. Jodhpur Sanad Parwana Bahis nos 1–54, that cover the period 1764–1800/1821–57. The series continues into the twentieth century, spread over about 156 bahis. These bahis are of varying thickness, with folios tied together in a cloth-covered bind. They are;chronologically arranged year-wise, one to two bahis for each year. A majority of them follow a similar format, recorded as petitions from people and the state response to them. These judicial records cover a very wide range of issues, from petitions against taxes and elite exactions to disputes over the flouting of normative behavioural patterns of different communities. It also includes news reports that kasids brought to the diwan's office, along with the state orders in this regard.
2. Khas Rukka Parwana Series number 10 bahis, of which no. 1, that covered the period 1822–1774/1765–831, was relevant for my study. This bahi comprises letters written by the rulers of Jodhpur to important traders in and around Marwar.
3. Jodhpur Arzi Bahis are collections of state responses to petitions from different social groups, especially Gosain brahmins. Bahi no. 6 has arzees from miscellaneous castes, including artisans.
(p.251) 4. Jodhpur Byav ri Bahis contain detailed accounts of the expenditure incurred on royal marriages. I have used Bahi no. 1 that covered the period 1776–1808/1719–51 and no. 2 from 1809–1908/1752–1851.
5. Jodhpur Patta Bahis nos 1–7 cover the eighteenth-century period. They detail the grant of land assignments by the state to the subjects.
6. Jodhpur Bahiyat: Kala Basta, cover the period 1810–50/1753–93.1 have used Bahi no. 3, 1821/1764, which describes construction and repair work undertaken by the state in that year; Bahi no. 9, 1823/1766 contains accounts of the Khema Karkhana; no. 17, 1832/1775 is titled Hazri Karigaran wa Mazdooran; no. 18, Bahi Talke Kamtha Tatha Hazari, and no. 19, 1832/1775 called Nagaur ke Kothar ki Bahi. Bahis no. 20, 1832/1775; no. 27, 1835/1778; no. 39, 1836/1779; and no. 44, 1837/1780 pertain to state kamthanana or construction work on forts, palaces, royal gardens, etc. Bahi no. 52, 1840/1783 is on Daru wa Shor (Barood gun powder) production.
7. Jodhpur Bahiyat: Safed Basta, covers 1831–1900/1774–1843. Bahi no. 5, 1836/1779 is Baroodkhane ke Roznamache ki Bahi; no. 6, 1836/1779 Kamtha Talke Jama-Kharach; no. 40, 1886/1829 Bahi Pali ke Shorkhana; no. 41, 1886–88/1829–31 Jodhpur Garh ki Tankshala; and no. 51, 1883/1826, Zanani Dyorhi, Kaprha ka Kothar wa Haziron.
8. Jodhpur Ohada Bahiyan record the recruitment of different officials to different posts in state workshops at the kilikhana, farrashkhana, and kaparha ka kothar, etc. with the dates of their appointment.
9. The Jodhpur Bahiyat collection contains bahis from different parganas, beginning from 1886/1829.
10. Jodhpur Hath Bahi, starting from 1771/1828, are like personal pocket diaries of the rulers.
11. Jodhpur Haqiqat Bahi, 1820–30/1763–73, contains newsletters from different parts of the kingdom.
12. Bikaner Kagad Bahis, nos 1–11, covering the period 1811–1857/54–1800 provided information on different aspects of state-subject interaction in the neighbouring kingdom of Bikaner, mied by a collateral branch of the Rathors.
13. Bikaner Kamthana Bahis, no. 135, 1759–61/1702–4; no. 2, 1808–14/1751–1757; no. 204, 1812/1755 contain details on the recruitment of construction workers, their wages, and the expenses on different raw materials.
14. Bikaner Sawa Bahis have information on commercial taxes imposed on different communities in different qasbas. I have used Sawa Bahi Anupgarh no. 2, 1818–21/1761–64, and Sawa Bahi Mandi Sadar no. 10, 1821–2/1764–5.
15. Zakat Bahis in the Bikaner Section provide information on inter-provincial and inter-regional trade. Bahi nos 81 and 84 mention trade routes, commercial taxes, and individuals from different communities engaged in trade.
(p.252) 16. Bahi Parwana Sardaran, Bikaner, no. 2/2, 1800–1900/1743–1843 throws light on the interaction of the maharaja with the subordinate hereditary chiefs.
17. Daftar Diwan Huzuri in the Jaipur Section contains chitthis despatched by the office of the Jaipur Diwan to its officials, especially amils, in response to complaints from the subject population. His instructions in 48 chitthis pertain to extortions and oppression suffered by artisans and peasants in eighteenth-century Jaipur state.
18. Dastur Komwar Records in the Jaipur Section of RSAB document land, titles, and other honours awarded by the maharajas of Jaipur to individuals of different castes from amongst their subjects. The entries are arranged caste-wise in alphabetical order and contain dastur or usage observed in respect of persons of different castes and communities. Of the 32 volumes, no. 23 is particularly relevant for understanding the artisans' position in the Jaipur state.
19. Arhsatta karkhanejat in the Jaipur Section of RSAB contain tozi records (on separate sheets) on the different state workshop-cum-warehouses, the commodities manufactured and the wages given to the workers there. For example, there are records on the chhapakhana, rangkhana, khushbukhana, khemakhana, farrashkhana, etc.
The following bahis at the Jodhpur District Archives, Jodhpur (JDAJ) have proved useful in collating information on different aspects of the economy of the state.
(a) Kotwali Chabutara Jamabandi Bahi, pargana Jalor, nos 753 and 754 helped understand the land revenue structure of the kingdom.
(b) Jama-Kharach Bahi, pargana Jalor, 1836/1779 is a good source for understanding the income and expenditure flows of the state.
(c) Dastari Records (Kharita and Chitthis), File Nos 32–115 were useful in comprehending the political and diplomatic context of eighteenth-century Marwar.
Foreign and Political Department Consultations, National Archives of India (NAI).
Home Political Proceedings, NAI
Rajputana Agency Files, (1800–1845), NAI
Jaina Inscriptions, Parts I–III, Puran Chand Nahar (ed.), Calcutta, 1918–29.
Muhnot Nainsi, Marwar-ra-Pargana-ri-Vigat, Narain Singh Bhati (ed.), vols I–III, Jodhpur, 1968–9.
(p.253) Marwar ri Khyat, (MS no. 199), Anup Sanskrit Library, Bikaner.
Vijay Vilas: Maharaja Vijay Singh ji ka Yudhh Varnana, (Incomplete Manuscript no. 45) at Rajasthani Shodh Sansthan, Chaupasani, Jodhpur.
Abul Fazl, Akbarnama, Bibliothica Indica Series, vol. II and III, Calcutta, 1873–87,
English trans, by H. Beveridge, vols I–III, (London, 1897–1910).
———, Ain-i-Akbari, Nawal Kishore Edition, 1882, Eng. trans. by Blochman, vol. I, (1873), and Jarett, vol. II and III; revised. Sarkar, vols II–III, (Calcutta, 1949).
Saqi Mustaid Khan (1710–11), Maasir-i-Alamgiri, Agha Ahmad Ali (ed.), Bibliothica Indica, Calcutta, 1870–3; trans. J. Sarkar, Calcutta, 1947.
European Travellers' Accounts
Col. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, or the Central and Western Rajput States of India, William Crook (ed.), 3 vols, rpr. Delhi: 1990.
Francisco Pelsaert, Jahangir's India: The Remonstrnatie of Francisco Pelsaert (Cambridge, 1925), translated by W. H. Moreland and P. Geyl.
Francois Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire, AD 1656–1668, trans., on the basis of Irving Brock's version and annotated by Archibald Constable, Second Edition revised by Vincent A. Smith, Delhi: first published 1934, rpr. 1989.
John Malcolm, A Memoir of Central India, 2 vols, London: 1824.
Joseph Salbancke, Journal in Purchas His Pilgrims, vol. III, ‘Voyage’, 1609, Mac Lehose.
Lieutenant A.H.E. Boileau, Personal Narrative of a Tour Through the Western States of Rajwara, in 1835, comprising Beekaner, Jesulmer, and Jodhpoor Calcutta, 1837.
Peter Mundy, The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608–67, 2 vols, London: 1914
Rev. Reginald Heber, Narrative of a Journey Through the Upper Provinces of India: From Calcutta to Bombay, 1824–25, 2 vols, London: John Murray, 1828.
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Political Agent, Marwar, Major C.K.M. Walter's Gazetteers of Marwar, Mallani, and Jeysulmere, Calcutta: 1877.
Rajputana Gazetteer, vols 1, 2, and 3A, Erskine, Scottish Mission Industries, Ajmer: 1908 and The Pioneer Press, Allahabad: 1909.
Mardum Shumari Raj Marwar, 1891, 2 vols, Jodhpur.
Phiroz R. Kothawalla, The Census of Marwar, 1911.
(p.254) Lt Colonel Archibald Adams, The Western Rajputana States: A Medico-Topographical and General Account of Marwar, Sirohi, and Jaisalmer, London; 1900.
Jodhpur Administration Report, 1883–4, Jodhpur.
Hardayal Singh, Report Majmui-Halat-wa-Intizam Marwar, Jodhpur, 1885.
Sojhat-re-Mandal-ri-bat, Narain Singh Bhati (ed.), published in Parampara, vol. 11, Jodhpur.
Report on the Relief Operations undertaken in the Native States of Marwar, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Kishangarh in Rajputana during the Scarcity of 1891–92.
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