Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Politics of Patronage and ProtestThe State, Society, and Artisans in Early Modern Rajasthan$

Nandita Prasad Sahai

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195678963

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: October 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195678963.001.0001

Show Summary Details

(p.250) Select Bibliography

(p.250) Select Bibliography

Politics of Patronage and Protest
Oxford University Press

The sources for Marwar's history are varied and rich, though they differ in volume and in chronological coverage. A general survey of these can be had from A Guide to the Records in the Rajasthan State Archives (Government Press, Bikaner, 1991), and from Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur: Catalogue of Publications (Government of Rajasthan Publication, 1991). I have used the following categories of sources to study eighteenth-century Marwar.

Unpublished Archival Sources

Marwari Language/Local Vernaculars

The following bahis are preserved in the Jodhpur, Bikaner, and Jaipur sections at the Rajasthan State Archives, Bikaner (RSAB).

  1. 1. Jodhpur Sanad Parwana Bahis nos 1–54, that cover the period 1764–1800/1821–57. The series continues into the twentieth century, spread over about 156 bahis. These bahis are of varying thickness, with folios tied together in a cloth-covered bind. They are;chronologically arranged year-wise, one to two bahis for each year. A majority of them follow a similar format, recorded as petitions from people and the state response to them. These judicial records cover a very wide range of issues, from petitions against taxes and elite exactions to disputes over the flouting of normative behavioural patterns of different communities. It also includes news reports that kasids brought to the diwan's office, along with the state orders in this regard.

  2. 2. Khas Rukka Parwana Series number 10 bahis, of which no. 1, that covered the period 1822–1774/1765–831, was relevant for my study. This bahi comprises letters written by the rulers of Jodhpur to important traders in and around Marwar.

  3. 3. Jodhpur Arzi Bahis are collections of state responses to petitions from different social groups, especially Gosain brahmins. Bahi no. 6 has arzees from miscellaneous castes, including artisans.

  4. (p.251) 4. Jodhpur Byav ri Bahis contain detailed accounts of the expenditure incurred on royal marriages. I have used Bahi no. 1 that covered the period 1776–1808/1719–51 and no. 2 from 1809–1908/1752–1851.

  5. 5. Jodhpur Patta Bahis nos 1–7 cover the eighteenth-century period. They detail the grant of land assignments by the state to the subjects.

  6. 6. Jodhpur Bahiyat: Kala Basta, cover the period 1810–50/1753–93.1 have used Bahi no. 3, 1821/1764, which describes construction and repair work undertaken by the state in that year; Bahi no. 9, 1823/1766 contains accounts of the Khema Karkhana; no. 17, 1832/1775 is titled Hazri Karigaran wa Mazdooran; no. 18, Bahi Talke Kamtha Tatha Hazari, and no. 19, 1832/1775 called Nagaur ke Kothar ki Bahi. Bahis no. 20, 1832/1775; no. 27, 1835/1778; no. 39, 1836/1779; and no. 44, 1837/1780 pertain to state kamthanana or construction work on forts, palaces, royal gardens, etc. Bahi no. 52, 1840/1783 is on Daru wa Shor (Barood gun powder) production.

  7. 7. Jodhpur Bahiyat: Safed Basta, covers 1831–1900/1774–1843. Bahi no. 5, 1836/1779 is Baroodkhane ke Roznamache ki Bahi; no. 6, 1836/1779 Kamtha Talke Jama-Kharach; no. 40, 1886/1829 Bahi Pali ke Shorkhana; no. 41, 1886–88/1829–31 Jodhpur Garh ki Tankshala; and no. 51, 1883/1826, Zanani Dyorhi, Kaprha ka Kothar wa Haziron.

  8. 8. Jodhpur Ohada Bahiyan record the recruitment of different officials to different posts in state workshops at the kilikhana, farrashkhana, and kaparha ka kothar, etc. with the dates of their appointment.

  9. 9. The Jodhpur Bahiyat collection contains bahis from different parganas, beginning from 1886/1829.

  10. 10. Jodhpur Hath Bahi, starting from 1771/1828, are like personal pocket diaries of the rulers.

  11. 11. Jodhpur Haqiqat Bahi, 1820–30/1763–73, contains newsletters from different parts of the kingdom.

  12. 12. Bikaner Kagad Bahis, nos 1–11, covering the period 1811–1857/54–1800 provided information on different aspects of state-subject interaction in the neighbouring kingdom of Bikaner, mied by a collateral branch of the Rathors.

  13. 13. Bikaner Kamthana Bahis, no. 135, 1759–61/1702–4; no. 2, 1808–14/1751–1757; no. 204, 1812/1755 contain details on the recruitment of construction workers, their wages, and the expenses on different raw materials.

  14. 14. Bikaner Sawa Bahis have information on commercial taxes imposed on different communities in different qasbas. I have used Sawa Bahi Anupgarh no. 2, 1818–21/1761–64, and Sawa Bahi Mandi Sadar no. 10, 1821–2/1764–5.

  15. 15. Zakat Bahis in the Bikaner Section provide information on inter-provincial and inter-regional trade. Bahi nos 81 and 84 mention trade routes, commercial taxes, and individuals from different communities engaged in trade.

  16. (p.252) 16. Bahi Parwana Sardaran, Bikaner, no. 2/2, 1800–1900/1743–1843 throws light on the interaction of the maharaja with the subordinate hereditary chiefs.

  17. 17. Daftar Diwan Huzuri in the Jaipur Section contains chitthis despatched by the office of the Jaipur Diwan to its officials, especially amils, in response to complaints from the subject population. His instructions in 48 chitthis pertain to extortions and oppression suffered by artisans and peasants in eighteenth-century Jaipur state.

  18. 18. Dastur Komwar Records in the Jaipur Section of RSAB document land, titles, and other honours awarded by the maharajas of Jaipur to individuals of different castes from amongst their subjects. The entries are arranged caste-wise in alphabetical order and contain dastur or usage observed in respect of persons of different castes and communities. Of the 32 volumes, no. 23 is particularly relevant for understanding the artisans' position in the Jaipur state.

  19. 19. Arhsatta karkhanejat in the Jaipur Section of RSAB contain tozi records (on separate sheets) on the different state workshop-cum-warehouses, the commodities manufactured and the wages given to the workers there. For example, there are records on the chhapakhana, rangkhana, khushbukhana, khemakhana, farrashkhana, etc.

    The following bahis at the Jodhpur District Archives, Jodhpur (JDAJ) have proved useful in collating information on different aspects of the economy of the state.

    1. (a) Kotwali Chabutara Jamabandi Bahi, pargana Jalor, nos 753 and 754 helped understand the land revenue structure of the kingdom.

    2. (b) Jama-Kharach Bahi, pargana Jalor, 1836/1779 is a good source for understanding the income and expenditure flows of the state.

    3. (c) Dastari Records (Kharita and Chitthis), File Nos 32–115 were useful in comprehending the political and diplomatic context of eighteenth-century Marwar.

English Language

Foreign and Political Department Consultations, National Archives of India (NAI).

Home Political Proceedings, NAI

Rajputana Agency Files, (1800–1845), NAI


Jaina Inscriptions, Parts I–III, Puran Chand Nahar (ed.), Calcutta, 1918–29.


Marwari Chronicles

Muhnot Nainsi, Marwar-ra-Pargana-ri-Vigat, Narain Singh Bhati (ed.), vols I–III, Jodhpur, 1968–9.

(p.253) Marwar ri Khyat, (MS no. 199), Anup Sanskrit Library, Bikaner.

Vijay Vilas: Maharaja Vijay Singh ji ka Yudhh Varnana, (Incomplete Manuscript no. 45) at Rajasthani Shodh Sansthan, Chaupasani, Jodhpur.

Persian Chronicles

Abul Fazl, Akbarnama, Bibliothica Indica Series, vol. II and III, Calcutta, 1873–87


English trans, by H. Beveridge, vols I–III, (London, 1897–1910).

———, Ain-i-Akbari, Nawal Kishore Edition, 1882, Eng. trans. by Blochman, vol. I, (1873), and Jarett, vol. II and III; revised. Sarkar, vols II–III, (Calcutta, 1949).

Saqi Mustaid Khan (1710–11), Maasir-i-Alamgiri, Agha Ahmad Ali (ed.), Bibliothica Indica, Calcutta, 1870–3; trans. J. Sarkar, Calcutta, 1947.

European Travellers' Accounts

Col. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, or the Central and Western Rajput States of India, William Crook (ed.), 3 vols, rpr. Delhi: 1990.

Francisco Pelsaert, Jahangir's India: The Remonstrnatie of Francisco Pelsaert (Cambridge, 1925), translated by W. H. Moreland and P. Geyl.

Francois Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire, AD 1656–1668, trans., on the basis of Irving Brock's version and annotated by Archibald Constable, Second Edition revised by Vincent A. Smith, Delhi: first published 1934, rpr. 1989.

John Malcolm, A Memoir of Central India, 2 vols, London: 1824.

Joseph Salbancke, Journal in Purchas His Pilgrims, vol. III, ‘Voyage’, 1609, Mac Lehose.

Lieutenant A.H.E. Boileau, Personal Narrative of a Tour Through the Western States of Rajwara, in 1835, comprising Beekaner, Jesulmer, and Jodhpoor Calcutta, 1837.

Peter Mundy, The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608–67, 2 vols, London: 1914

Rev. Reginald Heber, Narrative of a Journey Through the Upper Provinces of India: From Calcutta to Bombay, 1824–25, 2 vols, London: John Murray, 1828.

Near Contemporary Official Works

Political Agent, Marwar, Major C.K.M. Walter's Gazetteers of Marwar, Mallani, and Jeysulmere, Calcutta: 1877.

Rajputana Gazetteer, vols 1, 2, and 3A, Erskine, Scottish Mission Industries, Ajmer: 1908 and The Pioneer Press, Allahabad: 1909.

Mardum Shumari Raj Marwar, 1891, 2 vols, Jodhpur.

Phiroz R. Kothawalla, The Census of Marwar, 1911.

(p.254) Lt Colonel Archibald Adams, The Western Rajputana States: A Medico-Topographical and General Account of Marwar, Sirohi, and Jaisalmer, London; 1900.

Jodhpur Administration Report, 1883–4, Jodhpur.

Hardayal Singh, Report Majmui-Halat-wa-Intizam Marwar, Jodhpur, 1885.

Sojhat-re-Mandal-ri-bat, Narain Singh Bhati (ed.), published in Parampara, vol. 11, Jodhpur.

Report on the Relief Operations undertaken in the Native States of Marwar, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Kishangarh in Rajputana during the Scarcity of 1891–92.

Secondary Sources

Abu-Lughod, Laila, ‘The Romance of Resistance: Tracing Transformations of Power through Bedouin Women’, American Anthropologist, 17 (1), pp. 41–55.

Adas, Michael, ‘From Avoidance to Confrontation: Peasant Protest in Pre-Colonial and Colonial Southeast Asia’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 23 (2), pp. 217–47.

Ahuja, Ravi, The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India: Awadh and the Punjab, 1707–1748, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986(a).

———, ‘Aspects of Agrarian Uprisings in North India in die Early Eighteenth Century’, Sabyasachi Bhattacharya and Romila Thapar (eds), Situating Indian History for Sarvepalli Gopal, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986(b). pp. 146–66.

———, ‘The Origins of Colonial Labour Policy in Late Eighteenth Century Madras’, International Review of Social History, vol. 44, 1999, pp. 159–95.

———, ‘Labour Relations in an Early Colonial Context: Madras, c.1750–1800’, Modern Asian Studies, 36 (4), 2002, pp. 793–826

Alam, Muzaffar and Sanjay Subrahmanyam (eds), The Mughal State: 1526–1750, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Alam, Muzaffar, ‘Eastern India in the Early Eighteenth Century “Crisis”: Some Evidence from Bihar’, Indian Economic and Social History Review (IESHR), 28 (1), 1991, pp. 43–71.

Ali, Mohammad Athar, Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb, Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1966.

Anderson, Michael R. and Sumit Guha (eds), Changing Concepts of Rights and Justice in South Asia, Oxford: School of Oriental and African Studies, 1998.

Appadurai, Arjun, ‘Number in the Colonial Imagination’, Carol Breckenndge and Peter van der Veer (eds), Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament Perspectives on South Asia, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993, pp. 329–430.

(p.255) Arasaratnam, S., ‘Weavers, Merchants, and the Company: The Handloom Industry in South-eastern India, 1750–1790’, IESHR, 17 (3), 1980, pp. 257–88.

Arora, Shashi, ‘The Practice of Sale of Girls and their Position in Rajasthan, 1700–1800 AD’, Proceedings of Rajasthan History Congress, Bikaner Session, 1984, pp. 33–45.

Aryan, Subhashini, Folk Bronzes of Rajasthan, New Delhi: Lalit Kala Akademi, 1994.

Asopa, Ram Karan, Marwar ka Sankshipt Itihas, Jodhpur: Hindi sahitya Mandir, 1934.

Aziz, Abdul, Mansabdari System and the Mughal Army, Delhi: Idarah-i-Adabiyat-i-Dehli, 1972.

Bahura, Gopal Narayan, Literary Heritage of the Rulers of Amber and Jaipur, Jaipur Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, 1976.

Bajekai, Madhavi, ‘The State and the Rural Grain Market in Eighteenth Century Eastern Rajasthan’, IESHR, 25 (4), 1988, pp. 443–73.

Banerjee, Anil Chandra, Aspects of Rajput State and Society, New Delhi: Rajesh Publications, 1983.

Barhat, Shiv Dutt Dan, Jodhpur Rajya ka ltihas, 1753–1800, Jaipur: Rajasthan Hindi Granth Academy, 1991.

Barnett, Richard B., North India Between Empires: Awadh, the Mughals and the British, 1720–1801, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Bayly, Christopher A., Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770–1870, South Asian Studies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

———, The New Cambridge History of India: Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire, II.I, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

———, Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780–1870, Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Bayly, Susan, The New Cambridge History of India: Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age, IV.3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Bhadani, Bhanwar Lai, ‘Population of Marwar in the Middle of the Seventeenth Century’, IESHR, 16 (4), 1979, pp. 415–42.

———, ‘The Pastoral Sector in the Economy of Seventeenth Century Marwar’, paper presented at the Second International Seminar on Rajasthan, Udaipur, 17–21 December, 1991 (mimeographed paper at RSAB.

———, ‘Land Tax and Trade in Agricultural Produce in Seventeenth Century Western Rajasthan’, IESHR, 29 (2), 1992, pp. 215–26.

(p.256) ———, ‘Role of Merchants and Markets in Agrarian Trade in Seventeenth Century Western Rajasthan’, paper presented at the Seminar on Trade and Commerce in Rajasthan, Institute of Rajasthan Studies, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Udaipur (mimeographed copy at RSAB, n.d.).

———, Peasants, Artisans, and Entrepreneurs: Economy of Marwar in the Seventeenth Century, Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 1999.

Bhadra, Gautam, ‘The Mentality of Subalternity: Kantanama or Rajadharma’ in Ranajit Guha (ed.), Subaltern Studies VI: Writings on South Asian History and Society, pp. 54–91, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Bhargava, V.S., Marwar and the Mughal Emperors, 1526–1748, Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1966.

Bhargava, Meena, State, Society, and Ecology: Gorakhpur in Transition, 1750–1830, New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Bharucha, Rustom, Rajasthan: An Oral History, Conversations with Komal Kothari, New Delhi: Penguin, 2003.

Bhatnagar. V.S., Life and Times of Sawai Jai Singh, 1680–1743, Delhi: Impex India, 1974.

Blake, Stephen P., Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639–1739, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Bloch, Marc, French Rural History, trans. Janet Sondheimer, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.

Bose, Sugata (ed.), South Asia and World Capitalism, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Braddick, Michael and John Walter (eds), Negotiating Power in Early Modern Society: Order, Hierarchy and Subordination in Britain and Ireland, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Breman, Jan, Patronage and Exploitation: Changing Agrarian Relations in South Gujarat, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

Brennig, Joseph, ‘Textile Producers and Production in Late Seventeenth Century Coromandel’, IESHR, 23 (4), 1986 pp. 333–56.

Brouwer, Jan, Makers of the World: Caste, Crafts and Mind of South Indian Artisans, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Chakrabarty, Dipesh, Rethinking Working Class History: Bengal 1890–1940, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Chakravarti, Anand, Contradiction and Change: Emerging Patterns of Authority in a Rajasthan Village, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Chakravarti, Uma, Rewriting History: The Life and Times of Pandita Ramabai, New Delhi: Kali for Women, ill association with the Book Review Literary Trust, 1998.

Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan, The Origins of Industrial Capitalism in India: Business Strategies and Working Classes in Bombay, 1900–1940, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

(p.257) Chandra, Satish, Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court, 1707–1740, Aligarh: People's Publishing House, 1959.

———, Medieval India: Society, Jagirdari Crisis, and the Village, Delhi: Macmillan, 1982.

Chatterjee, Indrani, Gender, Slavery and Law in Colonial India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Chattopadhyaya, Brajadulal, The Making of Early Mediaval India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Chaudhuri, K.N., ‘The Structure of Indian Textile Industry in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’, IESHR, 11 (2), 1974, pp. 127–82.

Chauhan, Brij Raj, A Rajasthan Village, New Delhi: Vir Publishing House, 1967.

Cohn, Bernard S., ‘The Changing Status of a Depressed Caste’ in McKim Marriott (ed.), Village India, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955 pp. 53–77.

———, Colonialism and its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Commander, Simon, ‘The Jajmani System in North India: An Examination of its Logic and Status across Two Centuries’, Modem Asian Studies, 17 (2), 1983, pp. 283–311.

Crill, Rosemary, Marwar Paintings: A History of the Jodhpur Style, Jodhpur: India Book House Ltd., in association with Mehrangarh Publishers, 2000

Davis, Natalie Zemon, Fiction in the Archives: Pardon Tales and their Tellers in Sixteenth Century France, California: Stanford University Press, 1987.

Demirci, Suleyman, ‘Complaints about Avariz Assessment and Payment in the Avanz-Tax System: An Aspect of the Relationship between Centre and Periphery, A Case Study of Kayseri, 1618–1700’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 46 (4), 2003, pp. 437–74.

Detha, Vijay Dan, Batan ri Phulwari: Rajasthan ri Kadimi Lok Kathawan (ed.) Komal Kothari, 14 vols, Borunda: Rupayan Sansthan, 1962.

Detha, Vijay Dan, and Bhagirath Kanorhiya, Rajasthani Hindi Kahavat Kosh, Borunda: Rupam Prakashan, 1977.

Devra, G.S.L., ‘Bikaner Niwasi aur Deshantar Gaman Pravarti: Satrahavin avam Atharvin Shatabdi mein’, Proceedings of Rajasthan History Congress, (1974), pp. 25–33.

———, ‘Rural Indebtedness in the Bikaner State, AD 1700–1800’, paper presented at a seminar at Baroda University, Baroda, 1979.

——— (ed.), Maharaja Ganga Singhji Centenary Volume, Bikaner: Junagarh Fort, 1980.

——— (ed.), Some Aspects of Socio-Economic History of Rajasthan: Jagdish Singh Gehlot Commemoration Volume, Jodhpur: Rajasthan Sahitya Mand, 1980.

———, Rajasthan ki Prashasnik Vyavastha, Bikaner: Bharti prakashan, 1991.

(p.258) ———, ‘The Internal Expansion of Society and Formation of Medieval Polity’, Presidential Address, Medieval India Section, 59th Session, Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Patiala Session, 1998.

Dirks, Nicholas B., The Hollow Crown: Ethnohistory of an Indian Kingdom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Dube, Saurabh, Untouchable Pasts: Religion, Identity and Power among a Central Indian Community, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Dumont, Louis, Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications, 2nd edition, trans, from French by Mark Sainsbury, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1980.

Evans, P., D. Rueschemeyer, and T. Skoopol (eds), Bringing the State Back In, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Foster, W. (ed.), The English Factories in India: A Calendar of Documents in the India Office, British Museum and Public Record Office, (1618–69), Oxford, 1906–27.

Foucault, Michel, The History of Sexuality, New York Pheon, 1978.

———, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. by Alan Sheridan, London: Penguin Books, 1991.

Fox, Richard G. (ed.), Urban India: Society, Space and Image, Durhem: Duke University, 1970.

———, Kin, Clan, Raja and Rule: State-Hinterland Relations in Pre-Industrial India, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Fukazawa, Hiroshi, The Medieval Deccan: Peasants, Social Systems and States, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991, Rpr. 1998.

Fuller, C.J., ‘Misconceiving the Grain Heap: A Critique of the Concept of the Indian Jajmani System’, in J. Parry and M. Bloch (eds) Money and the Morality of Exchange, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 33–63.

Gehlot, Jagdish Singh, Marwar Rajya ka ltihas, Jodhpur Maharaja Man Singh Pustak Prakash Mehrangarh Museum Trust, 2nd edn, 1991.

Genovese, Eugene, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made, New York: Vintage, 1972.

Ghurye, G.S., Caste, Class and Occupation in India, Bombay: Popular Book Depot, 1957.

Ginzburg, Carlo, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth Century Miller, trans, by John and Arme Tedeschi, London: Routledge & Kegan Pad, 1980.

Gold, Ann Grodzins and Bhoju Ram Gujar, In the Time of Trees and Sorrows: Nature, Power, and Memory in Rajasthan, Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

Gooptu, Nandini, The Politics of the Urban Poor in Early Twentieth Century India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

(p.259) Grewal, J. S., In the By-Lanes of History, Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1975.

Grover, B.R., ‘An Integrated Pattern of Commercial Life in the Rural Society of North India during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’, Proceedings: Indian Historical Records Commission, 37, 1966, pp. 125–30.

Guha, Sumit, ‘An Indian Penal Regime: Maharashtra in the Eighteenth Century’, Past and Present, 147, 1995, pp. 101–26.

Guha, Ranajit and Gayatri Chakravary spivak (eds), Selected Subaltern Studies, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Guha, Ranajit (ed.), Subaltern Studies: Writings on South Asian History and Society, vols I–VI, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1982–9.

———, Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983.

———, ‘The Small Voice of History,’ Public Lecture delivered in Hyderabad on 11th Jan. 1993.

Guha, Sumit, ‘The Handloom Industry of Central India: 1825–1950’, IESHR, 26(3), 1989, pp. 297–318.

———, ‘Potentates, Traders and Peasants: Western India, c. 1700–1870’ in Burton Stein and Sanjay Subrahmanyam (eds), Institutions and Economic Change in South Asia, New Delhi: Oxford Univeisity Press: 1996, pp 71–84.

———, ‘The Politics of Identity and Enumeration in India C.1600–1990’, Comparative Study of Society and History, 2003, pp. 148–67.

Gupta B.L., Trade and Commerce in Rajasthan During the Eighteenth Century, Jaipur: Jaipur Publishing House, 1987.

Gupta, Ashin Das, Malabar in Asian Trade, 1740–1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Gupta, S.P., ‘Village of Medieval Rajasthan: An Economic Profile,’ Paper presented at the Second International Seminar on Rajasthan, Udaipur, 17–21 December, 1991, (mimeographed copy at RSAB).

Habermas, J., Legitimation Crisis, tr. Thomas McCarthy, London: Heinemann, 1976.

Habib, Irfan, The Agrarian System of Mughal India, 1556–1707, Bombay: Bombay Publishing House, 1963.

———, Essays in Indian History: Towards a Marxist Perception, New Delhi: Tulika, 1995.

Hand-Printed Textiles in Rajasthan: A Study. Documentation and Survey, National Craft Institute for Hand-Printed Textiles, Dondlod House, Hawa Sarak, Jaipur, 1986.

Hardiman, David, Feeding the Baniya: Peasants and Userers in Western India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Hasan, Farhat, State and Locality in Mughal India: Power Relations in Western India, c. 1572–1730, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

(p.260) Hasan, S. Bashir, ‘Textile Production in Mughal Malwa’, Proceedings in Indian History Congress, Mysore, 1993, pp. 29–39.

Haynes, Edward S., ‘A Corinthian Capital on a Column of Ellora: The Transfer of the Concept of Feudalism to the Rajput States of North India’, Journal of Indian History, vol. 57, pp. 152–87.

———, ‘The Political System of Alwar: Patrimonialism and the Jagir System’, paper presented at the 31th annual meeting of the association for Asian Studies, 1979.

Heesterman, J.C., The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual, Kingship and Society, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1985.

Hegel, G.W.F., The Philosophy of History, trans. J. Sibree, New York: Dover, 1st published in 1899.

Hindall, Steve, ‘Dearth, Fasting and Alms: The Campaign for General Hospitality in Late Elizabethan England’, Past and Present, no. 172, (Aug. 2001), pp. 44–86.

——— Hobsbawm, Eric, ‘Peasants and Polities’, Journal of Peasant Studies, 1(1), 1973, pp. 3–22.

Hutton, J.H., Caste in India: Its Nature, Function and Origins, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 4th edn, 1963.

Inden, Ronald, Imagining India, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990.

Jain, K.C., Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan: A Study of Culture and Civilisation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1972.

Jain, V.K., Trade and Traders in Western India, AD 1000–1300, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1990.

Joshi, Chitra, Lost Worlds: Indian Labour and Its Forgotten Histories, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003.

Kangle, R.P. (trans.), The Kautilya Arthashastra, vol. II, Bombay: 2nd edn, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1969.

Kanorhiya, Bhagirath and Govind Aggarwal, Rajasthani Kahavat Kosh, Jaipur: Panchsheel Prakashan, 1995.

Karashima, Noboru (ed.), Kingship in Indian History: Japanese Studies in South Asia, no. 2, New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Keyvanı, Mehdi, Artisans and Guild Life in die Later Safavid Period Contributions to the Social Economic History of Persia, Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 1982.

Khan, Abasan Raza, Chieftains in the Mughal Empire during the Reign of Akbar, Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, 1977.

Kolff, Dirk H.A., Naukar, Rajput, and Sepoy: The Ethnohistory of the Military Labour Market in Hindustan, 1450–1850, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Kotani H. (ed.), Caste System, Untouchability and the Depressed, New Delhi: Manohar, 1997.

———, Western India in Historical Transition: Seventeenth to Early Twentieth Century, New Delhi: Manohar, 2002.

(p.261) Kothari, Sushila, ‘The Urban Population of 17th Century Marwar’, Shodhak, 23(2), 1994 pp. 64–7.

———, ‘Estimated Rural Population of 17th Century Marwar’, Shodhak, 24 (2), 1995, Manohar, pp. 80–3.

Kumar, Nita, ‘Urban Culture in Modern India: World of the Lower Classes’ in Indu Banga (ed.) The City in Indian History, New Delhi: Manohar, 1995, pp. 191–205.

Kumar, Sunil, ‘Assertions of Authority: A Study of the Discursive Statements of Two Sultans of Delhi’ in Marc Gabonier, Francois ‘Nalini’ Delvoye and Muzaffar Alam (eds) Making of Indo-Persian Culture, New Delhi: Manohar, 1999, pp. 37–65.

———, The Present in Delhi's Pasts, Delhi: Three Essays Press, 2002.

Lalas, Sitaram (ed.), Rajasthani Sabad Kos, Jodhpur: Rajasthani Shodh Sansthan, Chaupasaru, 1988.

Magier, David, ‘Topics in the Grammar of Marwari’, PhD Thesis, 1983.

Mayaram, Shail, Against History, Against State: Counterperspectives from the Margins, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003.

———, Resisting Regimes: Myth, Memory and the Shaping of a Muslim Identity, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Mayer, Adrian C., Caste and Kinship in Central India: A Village and its Region, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

McLane, John R., Land and Local Kingship in Eighteenth Century Bengal, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Menanya, Motilal, Rajasthani Bhasa aur Sahitya, Prayaga: Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, 1960.

Misra, S.C., ‘Social Mobility in Pre-Mughal India’, Indian Historical Review, 1(1), 1974, pp. 36–43.

Misra, V.N. and S.N. Rajaguru, ‘Palaeoenvironment and Prehistory of the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India’, South Asian Archaeology, 1985, Karen Frifelt and Per Sorensten (eds), London: Curzon Press, Reprint, 1989, pp. 296–320.

Mitr, Meera, Maharaja Ajit Singh avam Unka Yug, Jaipur: Rajasthan Hindi Granth Academy, 1973.

Moore, Barrington Jr., Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in die Making of the Modem World, Boston: Beacon Press, 1966.

Moreland, W.H., From Akbar to Aurangzeb: A Study in Indian Economic History, New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, 1923.

———, India at the Death of Akbar: Delhi: An Economic Study, Delhi: Reprints and Trans. Publications, 1974.

Morris, Morris D., ‘Values as an Obstacle to Economic Growth in South Asia: An Historical Survey’, Journal of Economic History, XXVII (4), 1967.

Mukerjee, Rudrangshu, Awadh in Revolt, 1857–58: A Study of Popular Rebellion, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1984.

(p.262) Mukherjee, Mridula, ‘Peasant Resistance and Peasant Consciousness in Colonial India: ‘Subalterns’ and Beyond’, Part 1 and 2, Economic and Political Weekly, 8 Oct. and 15 Oct., 1988, pp. 2109–20 and 2174–86, respectively.

Mukhia, Harbans, ‘Illegal Extortions from Peasants, Artisans, and Menials in Eighteenth Century Eastern Rajasthan’, IESHR, XIV (2), 1977, pp. 231–46.

Munro, William A., The Moral Economy of the State: Conservation, Community Development, and State Making in Zimbabwe, Athens: Ohio University Press, 1998.

Myrdal, Gunnar, Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations, 3 vols, New York, 1968.

Naqvi, Hamida Khatoon, Urban Centres and Industries in Upper India, 1556–1803, Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1968.

Nath, Aman and Wacziarg, Francis (eds), Arts and Crafts of Rajasthan, Ahmedabad: Living Traditions of India Series, Mapin Publications, 1987, rpr. 1994.

Ojha, Pandit G.S.H., Jodhpur Rajya ka Itihas, Ajmer: Vedic Mantralaya, 1941.

Ortner, Sherry, ‘Resistance and the Problem of Ethnographic Refusal’ in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 37(1), 1995, pp. 173–93.

Pal, H. Bhisham, Handicrafts of Rajasthan, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.

Palriwala, Rajni, ‘Transitory Residents, Invisible Workers: Rethinking Locality and Incorporation in a Rajasthan Village,’ in Kumkum Sangari and Uma Chakravarti (eds) From Myths to Markets: Essays on Gender, New Delhi: Manohar, 1999, pp. 237–73.

Parihar, G.R., Marwar and the Marathas, 1724–1843, Jodhpur: Hindi Sahitya Mandir, 1968.

Parthasarathi, P., The Transition to a Colonial Economy: Weavers, Merchants and Kings in South India, 1720–1800, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Peabody, Norbert, ‘Cents, Sense, Census: Human Inventories in Late Precolonial and Early Colonial India’ in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 43(4), 2001, pp. 819–50.

———, Hindu Kingship and Polity in Precolonial India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Pearson, M.N., Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese during the Sixteenth Century, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

Perlin, Frank, ‘Of White Whale and Countrymen in the Eighteenth Century Maratha Deccan: Extended Class Relations, Rights, and the Problem of Rural Autonomy under the Old Regime’, Journal of Peasant Studies, 5(2), 1978, pp. 172–237.

———, ‘Proto-Industrialisation and Pre-Colonial South Asia’, Past and Present, 98, 1983, pp. 30–95.

(p.263) ———, ‘Changes in the Production and Circulation of Money in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century India: An Essay on Monetisation Before Colonial Occupation’ in Sanjay Subramanyam (ed.) Money and the Market in India 1100–1700. Delhi: 1994, pp. 276–3070.

———, ‘Money Use in Late Pre-Colonial India and the International trade in Currency Media,’ in J.F. Richards (ed.) Imperial Monetary System of Mugal India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987, pp. 232–373.

Prakash, Gyan, Bonded Histories: Genealogies of Labour Servitude in Colonial India, South Asian Studies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Prakash, Ishwar, ‘Organisation of Industrial Production in Urban Centres in India During the Seventeenth Century with Special Reference to Textiles’ in B.N. Ganguly (ed.) Readings in Indian Economic History, New Delhi: 1964, pp. 44–52.

Prasad, Beni, History of Jahangir, London: Oxford University Press, 1922.

Price, Pamela G., Kingship and Political Practice in Colonial India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Raheja, Gloria Goodwin, The Poison in die Gift: Religious Prestation and the Dominant Caste in a North Indian Village, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.

Rai, Mridu, Hindu Kings, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2004.

Ramaswamy, Vijaya, ‘Weaver Folk Traditions as a Source of History’, IESHR, 19(1), 1982, pp. 47–62.

———, ‘Artisans in Vijaynagar Society’, IESHR, 22(4), 1985 pp. 417–44.

———, Textiles and Weavers in Medieval south India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Rana, R.P., ‘Agrarian Revolts in Northern India During the Late 17th and Early 18th Centuries’, IESHR, 17(3–4), 1981, pp. 287–326.

Rao, Velcheru Narayan, David Shulman and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Symbols of Substance: Court and State in Nayaka Period Tamil Nadu, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Rathor, Vikram Singh, Marwar ka Sanskrit Itihas, Jodhpur: Rajasthani Granthagar, 1996.

Raychaudhuri, Tapan and Irfan Habib (eds), Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. I, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Rhys Davids, T.W. and S.W. Bushell (eds), On YuanChwang's Travels in India, (AD 629–45), 2 vols, (London, 1904–5; photo-offset edn, Delhi, 1961). Abridged trans, and commentary by T. Watters titled Buddhist Records of the Western World, 2 vols, (London, 1869, photo-offset reprint, Delhi, 1969).

Richards, John F. (ed.), Kingship and Authority in South Asia, Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1978.

(p.264) Robb, Peter (ed.), Dalit Movements and the Meanings of Labour in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.

——— (ed.), The Imperial Monetary System of Mughal India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987.

——— (ed.), Rural South Asia: Linkages, Change, and Development, London: Curzon Press, 1983.

Roy., Tirthankar, Traditional Industry in the Economy of Colonial India., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Rudd, Arild Engelsen, ‘The Indian Hierarchy: Culture, Ideology, and Consciousness in Bengali Village Polities’, Modem Asian Studies, 33(3), 1999, pp. 689–732.

Ruhela, Satya Pal, The Gaduliya Lohars of Rajasthan: A Study in die Sociology of Nomadism, New Delhi: Ihipex India, 1968.

Sahai, Nandita Prasad, ‘Artisans in a Mughal Province: A Study of Eighteenth Century Marwar’, PhD Thesis, Dept. of History, University of Delhi, 2001.

———, ‘Collaboration and Conflict: Artisanal Jati Panchayats and the Eighteenth Century Jodhpur State’, The Medieval History Journal, vol. 5 (1), (2002), pp. 77–102.

———, ‘Artisans, the State and the Politics of Wajabi in Eighteenth Century Jodhpur’, IESHR, 41(1), 2005, pp. 41–68.

———, ‘Crafts in Eighteenth Century jodhpur: Questions of Class, Caste, and Community Identities’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 48(4), 2005, pp. 524–51.

———, ‘Crafts and Statecraft in Eighteenth Century Jodhpur’, Modern Asian Studies, 40, 2006, forthcoming.

Said, Edward, Orientalism, New York: 1979.

Saksena, B.P., History of Shah Jahan of Dihli, 1st published in 1932, Allahabad: Central Book Depot, 1962.

Salim, Prince, ‘Some Aspects of the Sair Įjara in Marwar During the Eighteenth Century’, Proceedings of Rajasthan History Congress, Bikaner, 1984.

Saran, Richard, D., ‘Conquest and Colonization: Rajputs and Vasis in Medieval Period Marwar’, PhD Thesis, Dept. of History, University of Michigan, 1978.

Sarkar, Jadunath, History of Aurangzeb: Mainly based on Persian Sources, 1st published in 1912–24, Bombay: Orient Longman, 1972–4.

Sarkar, Sumit, ‘The Kalki-Avatar of Bikrampur: A Village Scandal in Early Twentieth Century Bengal’ in R. Guha (ed.) Subaltern Studies VI, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 1–53.

Schomer, Karine, Joan L. Erdman, Deryck O. Lodrick, and Lloyd I. Rudolph (eds), The Idea of Rajasthan, Explorations in Regional Identity, 2 vols, New Delhi: Manohar, 1994.

Scott, James C., Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcipts, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

(p.265) ———, Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.

———, Weapons of the Weak Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Shah, A.M., ‘The Rural-Urban Networks in India’, South Asia, II, 1988, pp. 1–27.

Shah, Paras Raj, ‘Famines in Western Rajasthan Through the Ages’, Proceedings of Rajasthan History Congress, 1970, pp. 88–93.

Sharma, Dashrath (ed.), Rajasthan Through the Ages, 2 vols, Bikaner: Rajastan State Archives, 1966.

Sharma, G.D., ‘Some Agricultural Taxes in Marwar’, Proceedings of Rajasthan History Congress, Beawar Session, 1973.

———, ‘State Land Revenue Demand in Marwar Diiring the Seventeenth Century’, Proceedings of Rajasthan History Congress, Pali Session, 1974, pp. 69–73.

———, Rajput Polity: A Study of Politics and Administration of the State of Marwar, 1638–1749, New Delhi: Manohar, 1977.

———, ‘Vyaparis and Mahajans in Western Rajasthan During the Eighteenth Century’, Proceedings of Indian History Congress, 41st Session, Bombay, 1980, pp. 377–85.

Sharma, Padmaja, Maharaja Man Singh of Jodhpur and His Times, 1803–1843, Agra: Shiv Lai Agarwala, 1972.

Sharma, Sanjay, Famine, Philanthropy and the Colonial State: North India in the Early Nineteenth Century, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Singer, Milton and Bernard S. Cohn, (eds), Structure and Change In Indian Society, Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1968.

Singh, Chetan, Region and Empire: Punjab in die Seventeenth Century, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Singh, Dilbagh, ‘Rural Indebtedness in Eastern Rajasthan during the Eighteenth Century’, Proceedings of Indian History Congress, Pali, 1974.

———, ‘The Role of the Mahajans in the Rural Economy in Eastern Rajasthan During the Eighteenth Century’, Social Scientist, 1974, pp. 20–31.

———, The State, Landlords, and Peasants: Rajasthan in the 18th Century, New Delhi: Manohar, 1990.

Singh, Hira, ‘Classifying Non-European, Pre-Colonial Social Formations: More than Quarrel Over a Name’, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 20(2), Jan. 1993, pp. 317–47.

Singha, Radhika, A Despotism of Law: Crime and Justice in Early Colonial India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Singhi, N.K., and Rajendra Joshi (eds), Folk, Faith, and Feudalism, Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 1995.

Sinha N.K., Economic History of Bengal: From Plassey to the Permanent Settlement, Calcutta, 1961–3.

(p.266) Sinha, Nandini, State Formation in Rajasthan: Mewar. Seventh to Fifteenth Centuries, New Delhi: Manohar, 2002.

Sivakumar, Chitra and S.S. Sivakumar, ‘The Meaning of Social Order in the Tamil Country’ in Peter Robb (ed.), Meanings of Agriculture: Essays in South Asian History and Economics, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 332–89.

Sjoberg, Gideon, The Preindustrial City, New York: Free Press, 1974.

Skaria, Ajay, Hybrid Histories: Forests, Frontiers and Wildness in Western India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Skocpol, T., States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravarty, A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward A History of Vanishing Present, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, 1999.

———, ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ in C. Nelson and L. Grossberg (eds) Marxism and the Interpretation of Cultures, Urbana, 1988, pp. 271–316.

Stein, Burton and Sanjay Subrahmanyam (eds), Institutions and Economic Change in South Asia, SOAS Studies on South Asia Understandings and Perspectives Series, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.

———, ‘World Economies and South Asia, 1600–1750: A Sceptical Note’, Review (Fernand Braudel Center), XII (1), 1989, pp. 141–48.

———, ‘Rural Industry and Commercial Agriculture in Late Seventeenth Century South-Eastern India’, Past and Present, 126, 1990, pp. 76–114.

———, (ed.), Merchants, Markets and the State in Early Modern India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (ed.), Money and the Market in India, 1100–1700, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994.

———, Penumbral Visions, Michigan: University Michigan Press, 2001.

———, Explorations in Connected History: From the Tagus to the Ganges, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Sunder, Nandini. Subalterns and Sovereigns: An Anthropological History of Bustar 1854–1996, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Swarnalatha, Potukuchi, ‘Revolt, Testimony, Petition: Artisanal Protests in Colonial Andhra’, International Review of Social History, vol. 46, 2001, Supplement, pp. 107–29.

Tambiah, Stanley, ‘The Galactic Polity in Southeast Asia’ in Culture, Thought and Social Action: An Anthropological Perspective Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985, pp. 252–86.

Tchitcherov, Alexander I., India: Changing Changing Economic Structure in the Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries: Outline History of Crafts and Trade, 1st edn, 1965, 3rd edn, New Delhi: Manohar, 1998.

Teltscher, Kate, India Inscribed, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995.

(p.267) Tessitori, L.P., ‘Notes on the Grammar of the Old Western Rajasthani with Special Reference to Apabhramsa and to Gujarati and Marwari’, The Indian Antiquary, Jan–Feb., 1914.

———, ‘Progress Report from the Work done during the Year 1916 in Connection with the Bardic and Historical Survey of Rajputana’, Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, N.S. 13, 1917.

Thakur, Laxman S., ‘Artisans in Himachal Pradesh, circa AD 700–1440: A Study Based on Epigraphs’, IESHR, 23(3), 1986, pp. 303–12.

Thompson, E.P., ‘Eighteenth Century English Society: Class Struggle without Class’, Social History, 3(2), 1978, pp. 133–66.

———, Customs in Common, London: Penguin Books, 1993.

Turner, Roy (ed.), India's Urban Future, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1960.

Vanina, Euginia, Ideas and Society in India: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Vashistha, R. K., Arts and Artists of Rajasthan, Delhi: Abhinav, 1995.

Verma, Tnpta, Karkhanas Under the Mughals: From Akbar to Aurangzeb: A Study in Economic Development, Delhi: Pragati Publications, 1994.

Vyas, R.P., Role of Nobility in Marwar, 1800–1873, New Delhi: Jain Brothers, 1969.

Weber, Max, ‘Politics as a Vocation’ in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, tr. and ed. H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.

———, The Hindu Social System, ed. and trans. H.H. Gerth and D. Martindale, Minneapolis, 1950.

Weller, R.P. and S.E. Guggenheim (eds), Power and Protest in the Countryside, Durham, N.C., 1982.

Wink, Andre, Land and Sovereignty in India: Agrarian Society and Politics under the Eighteenth Century Maratha Svarajya, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Wiser, William Henricks, The Hindu Jajmani System: A Socio-Economic System Interrelating Members of a Hindu Village Community in Services, Lucknow: Lucknow Publishing House, 1st edn, 1936.

Ziegler, Norman P., ‘Action, Power, and Service in Rajasthani Culture: A Social History of the Rajputs of Middle Period Rajasthan’, PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, 1973.

———, ‘Some Notes on Rajput Loyalties During the Mughal Period’ in J.F. Richards (ed.), Kingship and Authority in South Asia, 2nd edition, Madison: South Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin, 1981, pp. 215–51.