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India’s Ancient Past$

R. S. Sharma

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780195687859

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: October 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195687859.001.0001

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Chapter 14 Jainism and Buddhism Chapter 17 State Structure and the Varna System in the Age of the Buddha

Chapter 14 Jainism and Buddhism Chapter 17 State Structure and the Varna System in the Age of the Buddha

Source:
India’s Ancient Past
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Chapter 14 Jainism and Buddhism

Chapter 17 State Structure and the Varna System in the Age of the Buddha

Original Texts and Translations

Anguttara Nikaya, ed. Bhikku J. Kashyap, 4 Vols, Devanagari–Pali Series (Nalanda: Pali Publication Board [Government of Bihar], 1960).

Apastamba Dharmasutra, ed. G. Bühler (Bombay, 1932);

Eng. tr. G. Buhler, Sacred Books of the East, 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1879).

Asvalayana Grhyasutra, Anandasramasamskrtagranthavali, 105 (new edn, Poona, 1979);

Eng. tr. H. Oldenberg, Sacred Books of the East, 29 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1886).

Asvalayana Srautasutra, Anandasramasamskrtagranthavali, 81 (Poona, 1917).

Avasyakacurni of Jinadasagani, 2 Vols (Ratlam: 1928).

Baudhayana Dharmasutra, ed. E. Hultzsch (Leipzig: 1884);

Eng. tr. G. Buhler, Sacred Books of the East, 14 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1882).

Baudhayana Grhyasutra, ed. R. Shama Sastry, 2nd edn (Mysore: Oriental Library Publications, 1920).

Baudhayana Srautasutra, from the Taittiriya Samhita, ed. W. Caland, 3 Vols (Calcutta: Bibliotheca Indica, 1904–24).

(p.338) Dhammapadam (with a gloss.), ed. Shri Satkari Sharma Vangiya and Hindi tr. Kancchedilal Gupta, 4th edn (Varanasi: Chowkhamba Vidyabhawan, 1960).

Digha Nikaya, eds T.W. Rhys Davids and J.E. Carpenter, 3 Vols (London: 1890–1911);

tr. by T.W. Rhys Davids, 3 Vols (London: 1889–1921).

Gautama Dharmasutra, ed. Adolf Friedrich Stenzler (London: Sanskrit Text Society, 1876);

Eng. tr. G. Buhler, Sacred Books of the East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1879).

Gobhila Grhyasutra, ed. Chintamani Bhattacharya (Calcutta: Calcutta Sanskrit Series no. 17, 1936);

Eng. tr. H. Oldenberg, Sacred Books of the East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1886);

text with Hindi tr., Thakur Udaya Narain Singh (Delhi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Pratisthan, 1992).

Kalpa Sutra, Eng. tr. H. Jacobi, Sacred Books of the East, 22 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1884).

Mahaviracarita, ed. with Hindi tr. Rampratapa Tripathi Shastri (Allahabad: Lok Bharati Prakashan, 1973).

Majjhima Nikaya, ed. P.V. Bapat, Vol. 1; Rahul Sankrityayana, Vols 2–3, Devanagari– Pali Series (Nalanda: Pali Publication Board [Government of Bihar], 1958).

Nisitha Curni (Nisitha Visesa Curni) of Jinadasagani (with commentary), ed. Kavi Amar Mani Upadhyaya and Muni Kanhaiyalal (Agra: 1957–60).

Samyutta Nikaya, ed. Bhikku Jagdish Kashyap, Devanagari–Pali Series, 4 Vols (Nalanda: Pali Publication Board [Government of Bihar], 1959).

Sankhayayana Srautasutra, ed. Alfred Hillerbrandt (Calcutta: Bibliotheca Indica, 1888).

Srautakosa, Vols 1 and 2 (English Section) (Poona: Vaidik Samsodhana Mandala, 1962).

Sutta Nipata, Text and Hindi tr. Bhikku Dharmaratna (Varanasi: Mahabodhi Sabha, 1960).

Vaikhanasa Grhyasutra, ed. W. Caland (Calcutta: Bibliotheca Indica, 1927); text and tr. (Calcutta: Asiatic Society, 1927–9).

Vasistha Dharmasutra (Srivasisthadharmasastram), ed. Alois Anton Fuhrer (Bombay: Bombay Sanskrit and Prakrit Series 23, 1883);

Eng. tr. G. Buhler, Sacred Books of the East, 14 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1882).

Vinaya Pitaka, Eng. tr. T.W. Rhys Davids and H. Oldenberg, Vinaya Texts, Sacred Books of the East, 13, 17 and 20 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1822–5);

Hindi tr. Rahul Sankrityayana (Sarnath [Benaras]: Mahabodhi Sabha, 1935).

Archaeology

Altekar, A.S. and V.K. Mishra, Report on Kumrahar Excavations (1951–53) (Patna: K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute, 1959).

(p.339) Lal, B.B., Excavations at Sringaverapura (1977–86), Vol. 1 (New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 1993).

Narain, A.K. and T.N. Roy, Excavations at Rajghat, Part 2 (Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University, 1977).

Sharma, G.R., The Excavations at Kausambi (1957–59) (Allahabad: Department of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad, 1960).

Sinha, B.P. and S.R. Roy, Vaisali Excavations, 1958–62 (Patna: Directorate of Archaeology and Museums [Bihar], 1969).

Sinha, K.K., Excavations at Sravasti: 1959 (Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University, 1967).

Srivastava, K.M., Excavations at Piprahwa and Ganwaria (New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 1996).

Secondary

Adams, R.M., The Evolution of Urban Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966).

Agrawala, V.S., Paninikalin Bharatavarsha, 2nd edn (Varanasi: Chaukhamba Vidya Bhawan, 1969).

Allchin, F.R., The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, 1st edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Banerjee, N.R., The Iron Age in India (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1965).

Basham, A.L., History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas: A Vanished Indian Religion (London: Luzac & Co. Ltd, 1951).

Bechert, H., The Date of the Historical Buddha: Symposium Zur Buddhismus forschung, 2 Vols (Gottingen: Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, 1991).

——— (ed.), When did the Buddha Live? The Commentary on the Dating of Historical Buddha (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1995).

Bhaskar, Bhagchandra Jain, Jainism in Buddhist Literature (Nagpur: Alok Prakashan, 1972).

Bhattacharyya, D.C., Buddhist Shrines (New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt of India, 1987).

Bose, A.N., Social and Rural Economy of Northern India, 2 Vols (Calcutta: K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1942–5).

Chakravarti, Uma, The Social Dimensions of Early Buddhism (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987).

Chanana, D.R., Slavery in Ancient India (Delhi: People’s Publishing House, 1960).

Cowell, E.B. (tr), Buddhist Mahayana Texts, Sacred Books of the East, 49 (rpt, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1978).

(p.340) Davids, Rhys, Buddhist India (rpt, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1971).

———, Buddhist Sutras, Sacred Books of the East, 2 (rpt, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1980).

Dumont, Louis, Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications (New Delhi: Vikas, 1970).

Erdosy, George, Urbanisation in Early Historic India (Oxford: BAR International Service, 430, 1988).

Fick, Richard, The Social Organisation in North-West India in Buddha’s Time (Calcutta: 1920;

rpt, Delhi: Indological Book House, 1972).

Ghosh, A., The City in Early Historical India (Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1973).

——— (ed.), op. cit.

Gopal, Ram, India of Vedic Kalpasutra (Delhi: National Publishing House, 1959).

Jain, Jagdish Chandra, Life in Ancient India as Depicted in Jain Canon and Commentaries, 2nd edn (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1984).

Jaiswal, Suvira, Caste: Origin, Function and Dimensions of Change, op. cit.

Jha, Satyendra Kumar, Beginnings of Urbanization in Early Historic India: A Study of the Gangetic Plains (Patna: Novelty & Co., 1998).

Kane, P.V., op. cit.

Lal, M., Settlement History and the Rise of Civilisation in the Ganga–Yamuna Doab from 1500 BC–300 AD (Delhi: B.R. Publishing Corp., 1984).

Law, B.C., A Study of the Mahavastu (Delhi: Bharatiya Publishing House, 1978).

Lewellen, Ted C., Political Anthropology: An Introduction (Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, Inc., 1983).

Narain, A.K. (ed.), Studies in Pali and Buddhism (Delhi: B.R. Publishing Corp., 1979).

Nath, Vijay, Dana: Gift System in Ancient India (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1987).

Raychaudhuri, Hemachandra, Political History of Ancient India, op. cit.

Rockhill, W.W., The Life of the Buddha (London: Trubner Oriental Series, 1907).

Roy, T.N., The Ganges Civilisation (Delhi: Ramanand Vidya Bhawan, 1983).

Sarao, K.T.S., The Origin and Nature of Ancient Indian Buddhism (Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers, 1989).

———, Urban Centres and Urbanisation as Reflected in the Pali Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas (Delhi: Vidyanidhi, 1990).

Sen, B.C., Studies in the Buddhist Jatakas (Calcutta: Saraswat Library, 1974).

Sen, Madhu, A Critical Study of the Nisitha Curni (Amritsar: Sohanlal Jain Dharma Pracharak Samiti, 1975).

(p.341) Sharma, J.P., Republics in Ancient India (c. 1500 B.C.–500 B.C.) (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1968).

Sharma, R.S., Material Culture and Social Formation in Ancient India, op. cit.

———, The State and Varna Formations in the Mid-Ganga Plains: An Ethnoarchaeological View (New Delhi, Manohar, 1996).

Singh, Madan Mohan, Life in North-Eastern India in Pre-Mauryan India with Special Reference to c. 600 B.C.–325 B.C. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1967).

Singh, R.B.P., Jainism in Early Medieval Karnataka (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1975).

Sinha, B.P. (ed.), Potteries in Ancient India (Patna: Patna University, 1969).

Sircar, D.C. (ed.), Religion and Culture of the Jains (Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1973).

Srivastava, K.M., Discovery of Kapilavastu (New Delhi: Books & Books, 1986).

Stevenson, Mrs Sinclair, The Heart of Jainism (London: Oxford University Press, 1915;

New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1970).

Thakur, Vijai Kumar, Urbanisation in Ancient India (New Delhi: Abhinav, 1981).

Thapar, Romila, Ancient Indian Social History, op. cit.

———, Early India, op. cit.

Tripathi, Vibha, The Age of Iron in South Asia, op. cit.

Upreti, G.B., The Early Buddhist World Outlook in Historical Perspective (New Delhi: Manohar, 1997).

Wagle, Narendra, Society at the Time of the Buddha (Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1966).

Ward, C.H.S., Buddhism, Vol. 1, Hinayana, rev. edn (London: Epworth Press, 1947).

———, Buddhism, Vol. 2, Mahayana (London: Epworth Press, 1952).

Warder, A.K., Pali Metre: A Contribution to the History of Indian Literature (London: Luzac & Co. Ltd, 1967).

———, Indian Buddhism (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970).