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Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945$

Paul Weindling

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780198206910

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206910.001.0001

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(p.428) Appendix I Typhus Statistics in Germany, Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine

(p.428) Appendix I Typhus Statistics in Germany, Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine

Source:
Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890–1945
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Germany

Year

Cases

Deaths

1876

207

1877

240/1141

1878

647/223

1879

313/202

1880

323/209

1881

611/253

1882

422/118

1883

131/60

1884

Case statistics date from the Reich Law on Infectious Diseases

128/39

1885

63/34

1886

69/22

1887

97/49

1888

65/33

1889

13/16

1890

33/6

1891

22/12

1892

31/16

1893

26/15

1894

58/32

1895

16/19

1896

13/24

1897

11/7

1898

6/2

1899

11/18

Year

Baltic coastal region

Oder-Warthe region

Saxon-Brandenburg Basin

1877

24

65

1

1878

112

77

28

1879

5

70

122

1880

73

32

27

1881

182

24

27

1882

67

34

2

1883

16

11

9

(p.429)

Year

Cases

Deaths

1900

17/14

1901

2

13/18

1902

1

0/12

1903

6

0/13/1

1904

2

1/7/1

1905

16

4/0/0

1906

3

5/0/0

1907

17

5/0/2

[1908

8/9

2]3/12

[1909

7/7

0]2/0

[1910

18/4

4]4/0

[1911

6/12

1]1/1

1912

[8]/6

0/0/0

1913

6/6

3/0

1914

14/4

6/7/0

1915

573

669

Prussia3

[6542]

[1311]

1916

120

358

[110]

[157]

1917

273

502

[271]

[356]

1918

379

535

[299]

[401]

659

71

1 Dec. 1918–3 May 1919

1,980

1919

3,549

527

[2289]

[643]

3758

327

1920

483

67

[470]

[86]

1921

533/427

54

[299]

[100]

1922

386/3824

51

[429]

[94]

1923

27

11

[16]

[12]

1924

85

1

[10]

[3]

1925

8

56

[3]

[4]

1926

3

1

1927

7

0

1928

2

0

1929

17

1

1930

0

1931

1

1932

2

1933

1

1934

0

1935

0

1936

0

1938

1

1939

88

0

1940

556

959

1941

2,340

385  (includes 118 deaths in Prussia and 255 in Wartheland)10

1942

2,375

187  (includes 1246 cases in Prussia)11

1943

5,00012

973

88  (677 cases in Prussia, until 3 Apr.)13

May

296

June

27414

1944

May

2,492

June

2,225

July

45115

1945

16,506 in US zone till June 1945

1945

Weekly figures in US zone:

1–6 Apr. 1945

449

11–17 Aug. 1945

14,59816

Federal Republic of Germany

1951

12

1953

3

1954

2

1955

2

1956

0

1957

1

1958

2

1959

2

1960

4

1961

4

1962

0

1963

1

1964

1

1965

0

(p.430) (p.431)

Poland

Year

Cases

Deaths

Cases

Deaths

Congress Poland

1912

14517

annual average, US est. 6,50018

Government General

German Occupation

Austrian Occupation

1915

1,244

1,357

11,294

1,328

1916

16,285/34,538

1,269

10,446

1,175

1917

29,616/43,840

2,328

15,645

1918

–1 Dec

30,567/97,082/19

73,380

5,67020

(p.432)

Year

Cases

Deaths

Poland

1919

219,066/231,206

18,640/19,891

1920

168,097

22,57521

1921

49,547

4,199

1922

42,724

3,199

1923

11,185

898

1924

7,706

666

1925

3,950

320

1926

3,574

266

1927

2,948

265

1928

2,401

161

1929

1,988

146

1930

1,639

112

1931

2,154

144

1932

2,424

185

1933

3,453

200

1934

5,127

303

1935

4,149

249

1936

3,757

23422

1937

3,477

196

1938

3,557

18423

1939

3,291

121

Government General

1940

7,900

40424

1941

72,439

3,925

1942

88,609

5,843

1943

25,814

1944

8,271

Poland

1945

15,803

1,285

1946

3,518

296

1947

535

39

1948

391

21

1949

389

10

1950

214

12

1951

211

20

1952

219

17

1953

350

9

1954

369

12

1955

392

12

1956

433

7

1957

369

4

1958

287

1

1959

273

1960

265

4

1961

209

8

1962

151

225

(p.433)

Russia/Soviet Union

Year

Cases

Deaths

1905

76,831

6,241

1906

52,412

4,035

1907

51,984

3,639

1908

103,259

7,455

1909

180,724

10,501

1910

138,577

9,696

1911

120,671

7,647

1912

100,928

4,846

1913

118,419

7,251

1914

89,64326

1918

141,638/700,000

1919

2,340,691/6,600,000

1920

3,945,574/6,500,000

1921

698,449/1,200,00027

1922

1,467,955/1,441,443

1923

242,890/244/124

1924

126,865/125,474

1925

70,415/71,010

1926

55,817/55,841

1927

41,449/40,81828

1928

31,09029

1931

17,828

1932

78,132

1933

35,218

1934

56,194

1932

78,132

1936

45,409/55,95430

1937

58,042

1938

45,70331

1980

1,100

1985

500

1989

30032

Ukraine

Year

Cases

Deaths

1920

591,842

1921

110,891

1922

344,843

1923

31,307

1924

14,219

1925

9,123

(p.434)

Notes:

(1) Sources: League of Nations, ‘Typhus’, Monthly Epidemiological Report of the Health Section of the Secretariat, 8 (1929); second column: Statistisches Jahrbuch für das deutsche Reich, 1–(1880–). The figure for overall deaths refers only to towns with over 15,000 inhabitants until 1912. The figures of cases and the third set of deaths between 1901 and 1914 derive form BAK R 86/1039 Bd 1. Typhus deaths were concentrated in certain regions:

(2) Figures in square brackets are for Prussia, taken from 25 Jahre der preussischen Medizinalverwaltung, 158–9. The high wartime rates includes prisoners of war. Discrepancies in the period 1918–20 arise from whether military, migrants, seasonal workers, and prisoners of war were included.

(3) Peiper, ‘Fleckfieber in Preussen’, 6.

(4) The second figures for cases in 1921–2, and for 1913 are from B. Möllers, Gesundheitswesen und Wohlfahrtspflege im Deutschen Reiche (Berlin, 1923), 236.

(5) Reported cases taken from Ries, 61. The 1919 rates includes prisoners of war, otherwise the figures 1914–24 are for the civilian population. See also Medizinalstatische Mitteilungen aus dem Reichsgesundheitsamte, 1–23 ( 1893–1925).

(6) K. Glaser, Vom Reichsgesundheitsamt zum Bundesgesundheitsamt (Stuttgart, 1960), 56 gives deaths from typhus as follows: 1921: 41, 1922: 41, 1923: 5, 1924: 8, 1925: 2 (out of 3 cases).

(7) League of Nations, ‘Typhus’, Monthly Epidemiological Report of the Health Section of the Secretariat, 8 (1929), 474 for 1919–29.

(8) NAW 112/710/1110 ‘Epidemiology. Typhus Fever’.

(9) Ries, 77.

(10) Bulletin OIHP, 34 (1942), 185. Ries, 77 gives 1969 cases and 326 deaths for 1941.

(11) Bulletin OIHP, 35 (1943), 186–7.

(12) NAW RG 112, 710 box 1110, ‘Typhus Fever in Germany’, Fig. 1. The statistics 1939–43 correspond to those of the LNHO, and thereafter an upward trend is recorded. There is no official record for 1944.

(13) Bulletin OIHP, 35 (1943), 555–6, repeated 36 (1944), 84–5. This period (3 Jan.–3 Apr.) is the last set of statistics for Germany.

(14) BAK R 86/4148 it was claimed that only 19 of the 296 cases were Germans and that only 14 of the 274 cases were Germans.

(15) BAK R 86/4148 Seuchenstand, Juni 1944.

(16) Leiby, Public Health, 145.

(17) Rocznik Satstyczny Krolestwa Polskiego (1914), 233 cited in Frey, Bilder, 45.

(18) RAC RF 1.1/789/2/11, H. A. Shaw, 4 May 1920.

(19) Frey, ‘Gesundheitswesen’, 644; id., Bilder, 91. The second column refers to statistics given by Rajchman in International Health Conference April 13–17 1920, 32, 82.

(20) J. Kostrzewski, ‘Dur wysypkowy ( Typhus exanthematicus)’, in id. (ed.), Choroby Zakażne w Polsce i ich Zwalczanie w Latach 1919–1962 (Warsaw, 1964), 445. Also ‘Typhus’, Monthly Epidemiological Reports (1929), 482.

(21) Walbaum, in du Prel, Das Generalgouvernement, 192; Strong, ‘Anti-typhus Campaign’, 198–9.

(22) M. Hanecki, B. Neuman, and J. Czajka, Służ ba Zdrowia w Polsce (Warsaw, 1956), 38 for statistics 1919–35.

(23) League of Nations, Annual Epidemiological Report. Corrected Statistics of Notifiable Diseases for the Year 1938 (Geneva, 1941), 14.

(24) Ries, 77.

(25) J. Kostrzewski, ‘Dur wysypkowy ( Typhus exanthematicus)’, 441, 447 (includes statistics from 1919–62).

(26) ‘Typhus’, Monthly Epidemiological Reports (1929), 479.

(27) The second column contains estimates by Tarasevich.

(28) ‘Typhus’, Monthly Epidemiological Reports, 474.

(29) Ries, 62 for statistics 1918–28.

(30) League of Nations, Annual Epidemiological Report. Corrected Statistics of Notifiable Diseases for the Year 1938 (Geneva, 1941), 60. The USSR ceased to issue epidemiological data in April 1937.

(31) Ries, 76 for 1936–8 rates for European Russia.

(32) Patterson, ‘Typhus and its Control’, 381.