Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Greek Tragedy on the MoveThe Birth of a Panhellenic Art Form c.500–300 BC$

Edmund Stewart

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198747260

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198747260.001.0001

Show Summary Details

(p.211) Appendix 2 Non-Citizen Performers in Attica

(p.211) Appendix 2 Non-Citizen Performers in Attica

Source:
Greek Tragedy on the Move
Author(s):

Edmund Stewart

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Aegean

Tragic Poets

Achaeus I of Eretria (TrGF 20): born c.484–480 (Suda α‎ 4683); quoted by Aristophanes in the Wasps (1081 = fr. 29 TrGF) of 422; Peace (356) of 421; and Frogs (184 = fr. 11) of 405. Ion of Chios (TrGF 19): competed unsuccessfully against Euripides and Iophon in 428 coming third (arg. Eur. Hipp. 25–7); the Suda (ι‎ 487) gives the date of his productions in Athens as 452–448; according to Athenaeus (3f) he won at least one victory and, in celebration, allegedly gave a present of Chian wine to the people of Athens; his death in or before 421 is noted by Aristophanes (Pax 835–7), who also alludes to one of Ion’s dithrambs (PMG 745 = Leurini 84).

Tragic Actors

Mynniscus of Chalcis (O’Connor 351; Stephanis 1757): second actor employed by Aeschylus (Vit. Aesch. 15); victor at the Athenian Dionysia c.440 (IRDF 2325B.4); he is also possibly to be identified with the Mynniscus who was an acquaintance of Callipides (Arist. Poet. 1461b34–5) and victor at the Dionysia in 423/3, though this may also be a son or grandson (IRDF 2318.586, cf. prosopographical note p. 154; Csapo (2002) 128–31 = (2010a) 119–20).

Comic Poets

Hegemon of Thasos (Stephanis 1053): said to have performed a parody Gigantomachy in Athens in around 413 (Athen. 407a–c). Lynceus of Samos: defeated Menander in a comic contest (Suda λ‎ 776).

Dithyrambic Poets

Bacchylides of Ceos (Sutton 15): Ode 19 Maehler appears to have been written for performance in Athens, possibly at the Dionysia (see Maehler II p. 241). Hypodicus of Chalcis (Sutton 3): directed the first winning chorus at the Dionysia in 509/8 (Marm. Par. = FGrHist 239 A 46). Melanippides I of Melos (Sutton 6): directed a winning chorus at the Dionysia in 494/3 (Marm. Par. = FGrHist 239 A 47). Melanippides II of Melos (Sutton 18): grandson of Melanippides I; satirized by Pherecrates (fr. 155.3 K–A); admired in Athens for his dithyrambs (Xen. Mem. 1.4.3). Simonides I of (p.212) Ceos (Sutton 7): relative of Simonides II of Ceos, victor at Athens in 489/8 (Marm. Par. = FGrHist 239 A 49). Simonides II of Ceos (Sutton 11): victor at Athens in 477/6 (Marm. Par. = FGrHist 239 A 54); guest of Hipparchus before 514 ([Pl.] Hipparch. 228 b–c).

Aulos Players

Euius of Chalcis (Stephanis 952): performed for a successful chorus at the Dionysia in 320/19 (IG II–III² 3056).

Others

Anacreon of Teos: the tyrant Hipparchus is said to have been his patron in Athens before 514 ([Pl.] Hipparch. 228 b–c); he is also known to have praised the Athenian family of Critias son of Dropides in his poetry, perhaps around the end of the sixth century (Pl. Charm. 157e; Σ‎ [Aesch.] PV 128 (Dindorf p. 15) = fr. 412 PMG). Archedamus of Thera (Stephanis 430): described as a choral dancer (χορῶν ὀρχηστής‎) on an Attic cave inscription c.450–400 BC (IG I2 785 = SEG XXIX.48). Euenus of Paros: the tutor of the sons of Callias, son of Hipponicus, in Athens around 399 (Pl. Ap. 20a–b); he is remembered as a poet (Pl. Phaed. 60d, 267a). Phrynis of Mytilene (Stephanis 2583): victor at the contest for citharodes at the Panathenaea in 456/5 or 446/5 (Σ‎ Ar. Nub. 971 Holwerda I 3.1 p. 187); his poems were apparently popular in Athens c.420 (Ar. Nub. 971; cf. Pherecrates fr. 155.14 K–A). Sogenes of Siphnus (Stephanis 2326): aulete in the Athenian navy in the early fourth century (IG II–III² 1951.101).

Asia Minor and the Black Sea

Tragic Poets

Phanostratus of Halicarnassus (TrGF 94): won a victory at the Dionysia in 306 (IG II–III² 3073); a statue of Phanostratus was set up by his countrymen in Athens (IG II–III² 2794). Spintharus of Heraclea Pontica (TrGF 40): described by the Suda (σ‎ 945) as a tragic poet, and author of a Heracles and a Semele, from Heraclea. He may be the same Spintharus who is called a barbarian and a Phrygian in Aristophanes’ Birds (762; cf. Σ‎ Ar. Av. 762b Holwerda II 3 p.119). This identification has been disputed, however.1 It is argued that Spintharus is a nickname for the late fourth-century philosopher and pupil of Zeno, Dionysius of Heraclea. According to Diogenes Laertius, this man passed off his play the Parthenopaeus as a work of Sophocles, convincing Heraclides Ponticus: (ἔτι καὶ Διονύσιος ὁ Μεταθέμενος‎—ἢ Σ‎ (p.213) πίνθαρος‎, ὡς ἔνιοι‎—γράψας τὸν Παρθενοπαῖον ἐπέγραψε Σοφοκλέους‎ 5.92). The meaning of the text is ambiguous: Diogenes could be giving an alternative name for Dionysius or attributing authorship to another poet from Heraclea, named Spintharus. The latter is more likely since Spintharus (or its variant forms) is attested as a proper name for both Athenians and non–citizens in the fifth century.2 Diogenes does not endorse the alternative suggestion that Spintharus is the author, but merely mentions it as a possibility. Furthermore, the Parthenopaeus is not mentioned in the list of Spintharus’ plays in the Suda and the compilers may have been aware of Aristophanes’ Spintharus from a different source. Spintharus, therefore, could quite possibly have been a Greek whose home-city was in the vicinity of barbarian Phrygia. If so, this probably led Aristophanes to characterize him as Phrygian in the Birds. See Kotlińska–Toma (2015) 143–4. Theodectas of Phaselis (TrGF 72): his name has been restored to the list of victors at the Dionysia after Astydamas: if correct, he gained his first victory, out of a future total of seven, around 370 (IRDF 2325.11, pp. 148–9). An epigram, said to have been placed on his tomb in Attica, recorded eight successes out of thirteen competitions (Steph. Byz. p. 660 Meineke = FGE 1572–5).

Comic Poets

Dionysius of Sinope: victor once at the Lenaea in the second half of the fourth century (IRDF 2325E.53); origins (Athen. 467d, 497c, 615e). Diphilus of Sinope (O–B 6811): a poet of New Comedy and contemporary of Menander (Anon. De Com III.62 Holwerda I 1a p. 10), who was victorious on three occasions at the Lenaea towards the end of the fourth century (IRDF 2325E.63); origins (Strab. 12.3.11; IG II–III2 10321); a family memorial to himself, his father, and brother (the comic poet Diodorus) was found in the Piraeus (IG II–III2 10321).

Dithyrambic Poets

Timotheus of Miletus (Sutton 33): Plutarch (de superstit. 170a) refers to a performance of his monodic poem the Artemis at Athens. For criticism on the Athenian comic stage see Pherecrates fr. 155.19–28 K–A; Anaxandr. fr. 6 K–A; Antiph. fr. 110 K–A; [Plut.] de Mus. 1132e; see Olson (2007) 182, 184–5 and Power (2010) 516–35. He allegedly received encouragement from Euripides: Satyrus F6 (p.111 Schorn) = P.Oxy. 1176 fr. 39 col. 22; Plut. an seni (p.214) resp. ger. sit 795d. A reperformance of his dithyramb the Elpenor won a victory in the late fourth century (IG II–III² 3055; see Hordern (2002) 82).

Others

Ion of Ephesus: rhapsode who appears at the Panathenaea in the late fifth century in Plato’s Ion (530a–b).

Central Greece: Boeotia and Locris

Comic Actors

Aristodemus of Scaphae (in Boeotia) or Scarphea (in Locris) (Stephanis 333): actor in Menander’s Dyscolus in 316 (arg. Dysc. Sandbach;). Lycon of Scarphea (O’Connor 319; Stephanis 1567): twice victorious at the Lenaea c.350 (IRDF 2325F.48).

Dithyrambic Poets

Corinnus of Opus (Sutton 46; Stephanis 1482): directed a chorus of boys at the Thargelia of 352/1 (SEG XXVII.18). Pheidias of Opus (Sutton 47; Stephanis 2467): directed a chorus of boys at the Thargelia in 349/8 (SEG XXVII.19). Pindar of Thebes (Sutton 16): composed dithyrambs in praise of Athens (Fr. 74a–88 S–M). Polyzelus of Thebes (Sutton 43; Stephanis 2097): poet of a winning boy’s chorus at the Thargelia in 363/2 (SEG XXVII.12).

Aulos Players

Bacchylides of Opus (Stephanis 514): mocked as a sophist by Plato the comedian in the late fifth century (fr. 149 K–A). Chairis of Thebes (Stephanis 2594): satirized by Aristophanes as an inferior aulos player (Ach. 15–6, 866, Pax 950–5, Av. 858) and as a citharode by Pherecrates (fr. 6 K–A); origins (Σ‎ Ar. Ach. 866a Holwerda I 1b p. 113). Chares of Thebes (Stephanis 2598): performed in a rural Dionysia in the fourth century (IG II–III2 3106). Commes of Thebes (Stephanis 1475): performed at the Thargelia of 352/1 (SEG XXVII.18). Lycus of Thebes (Stephanis 1564): performed for a chorus in the fourth century (IG II–III2 3046). Oeniades of Thebes (Stephanis 1932): son of Pronomus of Thebes, performed at the Thargelia in 384/3, 359/8, and 357/6 (IG II–III2 3064, SEG XXVI.220, XXVII.17;). Potamon of Thebes (Stephanis 2131; O–B 2453): son of Olympichus of Thebes, his funeral stele was erected in Attica and may date to the first half of the fourth century (IG II–III2 8883). Pronomus of Thebes (Stephanis 2149): an Attic vase c.400 depicts Pronomus in the company of a satyric chorus (Naples 3240 =ARV2 1336.1 = MTS² no. AV25 p. 49).

(p.215) Greek West: Italy and Sicily

Tragic Poets

Achaeus II of Syracuse (TrGF 79): victorious at the Lenaea in c.356 (IRDF 2325.242, pp. 206–7; Suda α‎ 4682). Dionysius of Syracuse (TrGF 76): victorious once in absentia at the Lenaea in 367 (Diod. Sic. 15.73.5); according to Tzetzes (Chil. 5. 23. 178–82), one of the winning plays was entitled the Ransom of Hector. Sosiphanes of Syracuse (TrGF 92): victorious seven times (Suda σ‎ 863) in the second half of the fourth century; died in 313/12 (Marm. Par. = FGrHist 239 B 15).

Tragic Actors

Aristodemus of Metapontum (O’Connor 62; Stephanis 332); acted on an Athenian embassy to Philip in 346 and may have been granted Athenian citizenship before then; origins (Σ‎ Aeschin. 2.15 p.59 Dilts). Archias of Thurii (O’Connor 87; Stephanis 439): victor at the Lenaea in the second half of the fourth century (IRDF 2325H.43); origins (Vit. X Orat. 849b; Plut. Dem. 28).

Comic Poets

Alexis of Thurii: victor at the Dionysia in 347 (IRDF 2318.1474) and victorious at least twice in the Lenaea (IRDF 2325E.45); origins (Suda α‎ 1138). Apollodorus of Gela: a poet of the New Comedy and contemporary of Menander (Suda α‎ 3405); victor at the Lenaea before Diphilus (IRDF 2325E.62).

Dithyrambic Poets

Charilaus of Locri (Stephanis 2612; Sutton 56): directed a winning chorus at the Dionysia in 328/7 (IG II–III2 3052). Stesichorus II of Himera (Sutton 41): won a victory at Athens in 369/8 (Marm. Par. = FGrHist 239 A 73). Telestes of Selinus (Sutton 36): directed a winning chorus at Athens in 402/1 (Marm Par. = FGrHist 239 A 65).

Aulos Players

Midas of Acragas (Stephanis 1702): victor at the Pythian games of 494 and 490 and the Panathenaea (Pind. Pyth. 12.1–6; Σ‎ Pyth. 12 Inscr. Drachmann II p. 263).

Others

Moschus of Acragas (Stephanis 1748): mentioned as a citharode by Aristophanes; according to the scholion he was from Acragas (Ach. 13; Σ‎ ad loc. Holwerda I 1.b p. 7).

(p.216) Peloponnese and Megaris

Tragic Poets

Aristarchus of Tegea (TrGF 14): a contemporary of Euripides who is said to have produced plays in 454 (Suda α‎ 3893; Eusebius Chronica Ol.81.3 p. 110 Helm). The Suda records two victories. Aristias of Phlius (TrGF 9): produced his father Pratinas’ plays in 467 (arg. Aesch. Sept); his name has been restored to the list of tragic poets at the Dionysia, two places after Sophocles (IRDF 2325A.17; cf. Vit. Soph. 19). Neophron of Sicyon (TrGF 15): Diogenes Laertius (3.134) and the Suda (ν‎ 218 Adler) make the claim that Euripides’ Medea was actually by Neophron. However, according to the Hypomnemata attributed to Aristotle and Dicaearchus (arg. Eur. Med. a 25–7), Euripides plagiarized the text of a completely separate Medea, which is quoted by Stobaeus and in scholia on Euripides’ text (Σ‎ Med. 666, 1387; Stob. 3.20.33; see Mastronarde (2002) 57–60). We know almost nothing else about Neophron, despite the Suda’s claim that he composed as many as 120 plays (a suspiciously high number). Modern scholars have suggested that the play ascribed to Neophron may have been a forgery (see Page (1938) xxxvi; Mastronarde (2002) 60–4; Mossman (2011) 23–8; contra Michelini (1989) 125–34). It has been argued that Neophron was not a fifth-century tragedian at all, but rather a legendary poet from Sicyon, who was invented as part of the Dorian claim to the invention of tragedy (Mossman (2011) 25; see Ch. 4.1.a). However, Aristophanes is known to have accused Euripides of collaborating with his contemporaries Cephisophon and Meletus and this may have been something of a standard joke.3 A similar claim could have been made by the comic poets for Neophron in the 430s. The note in the Suda that Neophron was the first poet to introduce pedagogues and the torture of slaves may also be derived from old comedy.4 Neophron may thus have been a fifth-century poet and associate of Euripides, whose name was tagged on to a later version of the Medea (Mastronarde (2002) 61). Pratinas of Phlius (TrGF 4): competed against Aeschylus and Choerilus around 499 and 496 (Suda π‎ 349).

(p.217) Dithyrambic Poets

Antiphilus of Megara: (Stephanis 223; Sutton 45) poet of a winning boy’s chorus at the Thargelia in 354/3 (SEG XXVI.220). Epicurus of Sicyon (Stephanis 859; Sutton 52): directed a chorus of boys at the Thargelia in 344/3 (IG II–III2 3068). Hegemon of Phlius (Stephanis 1051; Sutton 44): directed a chorus at the Thargelia in 359/8 (SEG XXVII.16). Hellanicus of Argos (Stephanis 832; Sutton 64): directed a chorus of boys at Athens on perhaps two occasions; his name has been restored to a choregic monument of 337/6 (IG II–III2 3078; Raubitschek (1943) 53–5). Lasus of Hermione (Sutton 2): active in Athens before 514 (Hdt. 7.6); Aristophanes (Vesp. 1411) presents him as a rival to Simonides in the dithyrambic contest; he is said to have produced dithyrambs at Corinth (Σ‎ Pind. Ol. 13.26b Drachmann I pp. 361–2) and may have done so at the Athenian Dionysia after the institution of contests in 509/8.

Aulos Players

Alexippus of Argos (Stephanis 123): performed at the Thargelia for a chorus of boys in 363/2 and 361/0 (SEG XXVII.12 and 14; IG II–III2 3067). Alcathous of Sicyon (Stephanis 130): performed at the Thargelia for a chorus of boys in 359/8 (SEG XXVII.16). Aratus of Argos (Stephanis 291): performed for a winning chorus at the Dionysia in the fourth century (IG II–III2 3038). Ariston of Argos (Stephanis 378): performed for a chorus at the Dionysia, perhaps in the fifth century (Antigenes Anth. Pal. 13.28 = FGE 33–44). Callistratus of Tegea (Stephanis 1359): performed at the Thargelia for a chorus of boys in 349/8 (SEG XXVII.19). Cleanthes of Sicyon (Stephanis 1416): performed at the Thargelia for choruses of boys in 362/1 and 360/59 (SEG XXVII.13 and 15). Pantaleon of Sicyon (Stephanis 1997): performed for a chorus of boys in 320/19 (IG II–III² 3055). Philip of Sicyon (Stephanis 2503): performed for a chorus of men at the Dionysia, at the end of the fourth or start of the third century (IG II–III2 3078). Satyrus of Sicyon (Stephanis 2237): performed at the Thargelia for a chorus of boys in 344/3 (IG II–III2 3068). Telephanes of Megara (Stephanis 2408): aulete for Demosthenes at the Dionysia of 351/50 (Dem. 21.17) and at a deme festival on Salamis (IG II–III2 3093).

Others

Epicles of Hermione (Stephanis 858): a citharist entertained by the young Themistocles in the late sixth or early fifth century (Plut. Them. 5.3).

Northern Greece: Epirus, Macedonia, and Thrace

Comic Poets

Epicrates of Ambracia: poet of middle comedy active c.380–350 from Ambracia (Athen. 422f).

(p.218) Comic Actors

Satyrus of Olynthus (O’Connor 429; Stephanis 2235): his name has been restored to the Lenaean victors’ list from the second half of the fourth century (IRDF 2325F.35); appeared in Dion in 347 after the fall of Olynthus (Dem. 19.193; Diod. Sic. 16.55); origins in Olynthus (Athen. 591e).

Dithyrambic Poets

Polyidus of Selymbria (Sutton 37): directed a winning chorus in Athens between 399/8 and 380/79 (Marm. Par. = FGrHist 239 A 68).

Aulos Players

Lysimachides of Epidamnus (Stephanis 1581): performed for a winning chorus at the Dionysia in 328/7 (IG II–III2 3052;).

Disputed or Uncertain Origins

Tragic Poets

Acestor (TrGF 25): a possible tragic poet satirized as a foreigner and barbarian. Callias (fr. 17 K–A) says he is a poet who is detested by his choruses, while Satyrus (Satyrus F6 p.106 Schorn = P.Oxy. 1776 fr. 39, col. 15) lists Acestor among Euripides’ less gifted competitors. Aristophanes’ described a son of Acestor as a foreigner (ξένος τις‎, Vesp. 1221). In a fragment of Eupolis’ Flatterers (performed a year after the Wasps in 421) the father is presented not only as a flatterer but also as a branded run–away slave and therefore a foreign non–citizen (τὸν στιγματίαν‎, fr. 172.14 K−A). Acestor is also given the name Sacas by Aristophanes (Av. 31). The scholion explains this as a term for foreigners from the name of a Thracian tribe, while a different entry on the Wasps calls Acestor a Mysian.5 The Persian name Datis, allegedly given to a son of the elder Carcinus, may similarly have been a nickname for a ‘barbarian’ tragic poet.6 In comedy Acestor seems to be trying to get himself accepted as an Athenian citizen. Pisetaerus complains in the Birds that Sacas, as a non–citizen, is trying to force his way into Athenian society (ὁ μὲν γὰρ ὢν οὐκ ἀστὸς εἰσβιάζεται‎, 32). MacDowell (1993) 366–7 has suggested that he might have been the son of an Athenian man and a foreign woman who had been denied citizenship on the basis of Pericles’ citizenship (p.219) law of 450 BC. A fragment of Metagenes, also quoted by the scholiast, might suggest that Acestor at some point achieved citizenship:

  • ὦ πολῖται‎, δεινὰ πάσχω‎. {Β‎.} τίς πολίτης δ‎’ ἔστ‎’ ἔτι‎
  • πλὴν ἄρ‎’ εἰ Σάκας ὁ Μυσὸς καὶ τὸ Καλλίου νόθον‎;
  • Oh citizens, I suffer terrible things. <Second Speaker?> What citizen is there, besides Sacas the Mysian and the illegitimate offspring of Callias?

(fr. 14 K–A)

The phrase ‘illegitimate offspring’ (τὸ Καλλίου νόθον‎) suggests a disenfranchised son of Callias by a foreign woman: could Acestor have been in the same position? Once again, however, the meaning of the text is ambiguous: the joke is that ‘Sacas’ is not a bona fide citizen and that there is no other citizen except (πλὴν‎) Acestor.

Apollodorus of Tarsus? (TrGF 64): his name has been restored to the list of victorious tragic poets at the Lenaea from around 380 (IRDF 2325G.21). His origins in Tarsus are recorded in the Suda (α‎ 3406). It is possible that this notice derives from comedy. His case resembles that of the tragic poet Spintharus–a Greek from Heraclea whom Aristophanes may have caricatured as a Phrygian. See also the actor Hippocles, who was mocked by Alexis for being from Cilicia, the region in which Tarsus is situated. Theodectas is one certain example of a tragic poet from Phaselis, a Greek city in neighbouring Lycia. Meletus (TrGF 47–8): said by Aristophanes (fr. 156 K–A) to have had Thracian connections. Euripides is accused of taking inspiration from the drinking songs (σκολία‎) of Meletus in Frogs (1302) and a scholion reports that this individual was a tragic poet (Σ‎ Ar. Ran. 1302c Holwerda III 1a p. 146). This source, however, also claims that this was the same Meletus as Socrates’ accuser in 399 (cf. Pl. Ap. 23e4–5), who must have been an Athenian citizen. Snell posited the existence of two separate men named Meletus. Scurrilous accusations of foreign descent could be made against bona fide Athenian citizens in comedy, though, as MacDowell (1993) 370–1 argued, there may be genuine reasons for such assertions in particular cases. It is possible that this Meletus was an Athenian citizen with property or relatives in Thrace.

Patrocles of Thurii or Athens (TrGF 57–8): A tragic poet named Patrocles is said to have come from Thurii in Italy (Clem. Alex. Protr. 2.30.4). However, the god Wealth in Aristophanes’ play (84) visits the house of a certain Patrocles in Athens. A scholion on this line (Holwerda III 4a p. 23) adds that he was a rich Athenian and a poet. It is possible that the scholiast has confused two men with the same name. Theognis of Megara or Athens (TrGF 28): a tragic poet called Theognis was mocked by Aristophanes in 425 and 411 (Ach. 9–12 and Thesm. 170); the Suda (θ‎ 136) mentions that a Thognis from Megara was the author of an elegy for the survivors of the siege (p.220) of Syracuse; this may however be a confusion with the more famous elegiac poet; a scholion on the Acharnians identifies the tragic poet as another Theognis, an Athenian who became one of the thirty tyrants in 404/3 (Σ‎ Ar. Ach. 11 Holwerda I.1b p. 7; cf. Xen. Hell. 2.3.2; Lys. 12.6).

Tragic Actors

Ischander of Scyros? (O’Connor 264; Stephanis 1303): possibly the son of Neoptolemus of Scyros, active c.348; according to Demochares he worked in the same acting troupe as Aeschines, though this may be an inference from Demosthenes’ description of Ischander as Aeschines’ second actor (δευτεραγωνιστής‎) in the assembly (Dem. 19.10, 303; Demochares FGrHist 75 F 6a = Vit. Aeschin. 7). Neoptolemus of Scyros (O’Connor 359; Stephanis 1797): performed at the Dionysia in 342/1, 341/0 and was victorious at the actors’ contest in 342/1 (IRDF 2320 Col. 2); victorious once at the Lenaea c.370 (IRDF 2325H.30); origins on Scyros (Σ‎ Dem. 5.6, Dilts I p. 123); MacDowell (2000) 210–11 suggested that Neoptolemus may have been a member of the Athenian cleruchy on Scyros and thus an Athenian citizen, possibly the same man as the Neoptolemus son of Anticles of the deme of Melite (APF 10652). Polus of Aegina or Athens (O’Connor 421; Stephanis 2187–8): said to come from Aegina and to have been a pupil of Archias of Thurii (Plut. Dem. 28); associated with Demosthenes ([Plut.] Vit. X Orat. 848b); Lucian, however, indicates that he may have come from Sunium (Men. 16).

Tragic or Comic Actors?

Hippocles of Cilicia? (O’Connor 259; Stephanis 1281): mocked by Alexis (fr. 43 K–A). For tragic poets who were said to have had barbarian origins see Acestor, Apollodorus, Meletus, and Spintharus.

Comic Poets

Amphis from Athens or Andros: poet of middle comedy possibly active from c.350; according to the Suda (α‎ 1760) he was an Athenian, but his name is not commonly attested in Attica and an Amphis from Andros is mentioned in a decree of 332/1 (IG II–III2 347). Anaxandrides of Camirus or Colophon: first victorious at the Dionysia in 377/6 and again in 376/5 (Marm. Par. = FGrHist 239 A 70; IRDF 2318.1150); victorious three times at the Lenaea (IRDF 2325E.37); origins (Suda α‎ 1982; Athen. 373f). Diocles of Phlius or Athens: poet active in the period of transition between old and middle comedy (Suda δ‎ 1155). Antiphanes: born 408–404 and victorious eight times at the Lenaea from around 360 (IRDF 2325E.41); places of origin include Athens, Ceos, Larissa, Rhodes, or Smyrna (Suda α‎ 2735; Anon. De Com. III.45–6 Holwerda I 1a p. 10); he may have been granted citizenship (p.221) later in life. Philemo of Syracuse or Soloi: a poet of the New Comedy, who was victorious at least once at the Dionysia in 327 (Marm Par. = FGrHist 239 B 7) and three times at the Lenaea after 316 (IRDF 2325E.61); according to the Suda (φ‎ 327) he was a little older than Menander and active in the reign of Alexander the Great. According to one tradition, he was originally from Syracuse and later received Athenian citizenship (Anon. De Com. III.55–6 Holwerda I 1a p. 10). Strabo (14.5.8), however, believed that he was from Soloi. Sophilus of Sicyon or Thebes: comic poet of the fourth century (Suda σ‎ 881).

Others

Alcaeus (Stephanis 131): mentioned in old comedy as a citharode from either Sicily or the Peloponnese (Eupolis fr. 303 K–A). (p.222)

Notes:

(1) See Sommerstein (1987a) 346; Dunbar (1995) 471; Kaimio (1999) 55 n. 32.

(2) A non–Athenian slave of unknown origin is recorded with the name Σπίνθαρος‎ on an inscription of 405 (IG I3 1032.132 = O–B 8013), while a possible metic named Σπινθήρ‎ is recorded in the late fourth century (IG II–III2 1570.87 = O–B 8014). See further Masson (1992) 109–10 = (2000) 128–9.

(3) Ar. Ran. 944, 1301, 1408, 1452–3 with scholia. A version of this criticism is found in the biographical tradition (Vit. Eur. Ia 3 TrGF) where not only Cephisophon but an otherwise unknown Argive Timocrates helped him write his odes. Other collaborators listed in the Vita are his kinsman Mnesilichus and Socrates. For other examples in comedy see e.g. Ar. Nub. 553–6; Heath (1990) 151–2.

(4) Beating: e.g. Ar. Pax 742–7; Vesp. 1292–6; Ran. 616–17; lower–class characters: Ran. 947–9.

(5) Σ‎ Ar. Av. 31 (Holwerda II.3 p.12); Σ‎ Ar. Vesp. 1221 (Holwerda II 1 p. 192); Herodotus (7.64) and Choerilus of Samos (fr. 319 SH) equate the Sacae with Scythians.

(6) Ar. Pax 291; Σ‎ Ran. 86 (Holwerda III 1a p. 17).