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The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens$
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T. J. Crow

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780197263112

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197263112.001.0001

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Grades and Transitions in Human Evolution

Grades and Transitions in Human Evolution

Chapter:
(p.60) (p.61) Grades and Transitions in Human Evolution
Source:
The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens
Author(s):

Mark Collard

Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:10.5871/bacad/9780197263112.003.0005

This chapter assesses the number of grades that have appeared in the course of human evolution. It identifies three grades. The first is characterised by a species mean body mass of under 50 kg; a species mean stature of less than 150 cm; facultative bipedalism; relatively large teeth and jaws; a moderate size brain relative to body mass; and a relatively short period of maturation. The second grade is characterised by a species mean body mass of more than 50 kg; a species mean stature in excess of 150 cm; obligate bipedalism; relatively small teeth and jaws; a moderate size brain relative to body mass; and a relatively short period of maturation. The third grade is similar to the second in terms of body mass, stature, locomotor behaviour and masticatory system size; but exhibits a considerably higher level of encephalisation. It also exhibits delayed maturation.

Keywords:   human evolution, facultative bipedalism, obligate bipedalism, masticatory system, encephalisation

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