Latin is only one among many languages that have established themselves, in written form, by translating from others. The negative impact that humanism as promoted by Petrarch made on what is called the ‘inclusiveness’ of medieval Latin is shown. The relation between bilingualism and translation is obviously intricate. The separate source of the anecdote emerges quite clearly in the language. The chapter also shows the three factors in the story of Latin: (a) native developments in the language, (b) Hellenisms that infiltrated into it, and (c) outright translationese, idioms remaining recognizably foreign. It is suggested that, as the development of Latin in all its forms is understood from antiquity down to the Renaissance, it could be useful to pay more attention to the role of translations from Greek; not as a category apart, but as a continuing process, constantly provoking or instilling redefinition of what is possible as written Latin, or indeed as Kunstprosa.
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