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Unequal ChancesEthnic Minorities in Western Labour Markets$
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Anthony F Heath and Sin Yi Cheung

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780197263860

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197263860.001.0001

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The Legacy of Apartheid: Racial Inequalities in the New South Africa

The Legacy of Apartheid: Racial Inequalities in the New South Africa

(p.402) (p.403) 10 The Legacy of Apartheid: Racial Inequalities in the New South Africa
Unequal Chances


British Academy

In South Africa, 350 years of apartheid practice and fifty years of concerted apartheid policy have created racial inequalities in socio-economic position larger than in any other nation in the world. Whites, who constitute 11 percent of the population, enjoy levels of education, occupational status, and income similar and in many respects superior to those of the industrially developed nations of Europe and the British diaspora. Within the white population, however, there is a sharp distinction between the one-third of English origin and the two-thirds of Afrikaner origin. Despite apartheid policies explicitly designed to improve the lot of Afrikaners at the expense of non-whites, the historical difference between the two groups continues to be seen in socio-economic differences at the end of the twentieth century. Ethnic penalties are especially large for people with lower levels of education. Racial differences in income are large, even among the well educated and those working in similar occupations.

Keywords:   South Africa, apartheid, racial inequalities, education, whites, Afrikaners, ethnic penalties, income, occupations

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