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Unequal ChancesEthnic Minorities in Western Labour Markets$
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Anthony F Heath and Sin Yi Cheung

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780197263860

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197263860.001.0001

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Crossnational Patterns and Processes of Ethnic Disadvantage

Crossnational Patterns and Processes of Ethnic Disadvantage

(p.639) 15 Crossnational Patterns and Processes of Ethnic Disadvantage
Unequal Chances


British Academy

The experience of the second generation of migrants gives a clearer idea of whether liberal developed countries of Europe and North America provide equal opportunities to all their citizens, irrespective of their ethnic or national origin. This chapter examines the relationship between patterns of ethnic disadvantage and the nature of each country's economy, its patterns of social fluidity, its conception of nationhood, racism and xenophobia, and the relevant government policies. It discusses the gross disadvantages that ethnic minorities typically experience in the labour market and the net disadvantages (or ethnic penalties) after controlling for individual characteristics, especially for educational level and age. The chapter also assesses the gross differences between groups to determine the overall extent of ethnic stratification in each society and the nature of the vertical mosaic.

Keywords:   Europe, North America, second generation, migrants, ethnic disadvantage, social fluidity, xenophobia, labour market, ethnic penalties, ethnic stratification

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