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Unequal ChancesEthnic Minorities in Western Labour Markets$
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Anthony F Heath and Sin Yi Cheung

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780197263860

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197263860.001.0001

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Equal Opportunities or Social Closure in the Netherlands?

Equal Opportunities or Social Closure in the Netherlands?

(p.359) 9 Equal Opportunities or Social Closure in the Netherlands?
Unequal Chances



British Academy

There are four major ethnic-minority groups in the Netherlands: labour migrants from Turkey and Morocco, together with migrants from former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean, namely, Antilles and Surinam. Men from all four groups have lower labour-market participation and higher unemployment than the indigenous Dutch, and this holds for the second generation as well as for the first. First-generation Turkish and Moroccan women participate at considerably lower levels than indigenous women, whereas Surinamese and Antillean women participate at higher levels than their indigenous peers. Among second-generation women, however, these differences in participation have largely disappeared. The distribution of ethnic minorities across occupational classes also reveals a major change between generations. Overall, processes of social closure appear to continue to operate within Dutch society. Equal opportunities have not yet been achieved.

Keywords:   Netherlands, labour migrants, Turkey, Morocco, Antilles, Surinam, labour market, unemployment, social closure, equal opportunities

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