For the most part the ethnic of a citizen of an independent city carries no reference to the region in which the city is located, only to the city itself. However, the combination of a regional ethnic preceded or followed by a city ethnic is also a familiar feature of ethnic nomenclature. If, for one reason or another, the plain ethnic was regarded as insufficient for identification, the essential documentary formula from Classical times onwards was either by the addition of a prepositional clause, which might govern either the city or the region, or (less frequently) by the juxtaposition of the two elements, or by the simple use of the genitive case. This system of expanded ethnics was most commonly used either (a) when a city was a subordinate element in the federal organisation of an ἔθνος, which developed in due course into a political koinon; or (b) as a simple way of distinguishing between citizens of homonymous, and especially ‘eponymous homonymous’, cities. This chapter examines a few examples of the various categories involved.
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