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In Defence of LearningThe Plight, Persecution, and Placement of Academic Refugees, 1933-1980s$
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Shula Marks, Paul Weindling, and Laura Wintour

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780197264812

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197264812.001.0001

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Organized Rescue Operations in Europe and the United States, 1933–1945

Organized Rescue Operations in Europe and the United States, 1933–1945

(p.143) 9 Organized Rescue Operations in Europe and the United States, 1933–1945
In Defence of Learning

Tibor Frank

British Academy

After Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in January 1933, organized rescue operations in both Europe and the United States were put in place to save European intellectuals before or after their exile. However, it was mostly the brilliant and the productive who were helped in coming to America. From among the victims of Nazism, American foundations and endowments, universities, and research institutions primarily supported those who were viewed as having the greatest potential usefulness for the United States. This chapter discusses the activities of the Rockefeller Foundation, the New School for Social Research, and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Keywords:   European intellectuals, American foundations, Rockefeller Foundation, New School for Social Research, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

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