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China–IndiaPathways of Economic and Social Development$

Delia Davin and Barbara Harriss-White

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780197265673

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197265673.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM BRITISH ACADEMY SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.britishacademy.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright British Academy, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in BASO for personal use.date: 25 May 2020

(p.213) Index

(p.213) Index

Source:
China–India
Publisher:
British Academy
Africa, trade links with 3, 4, 10, 72, 83, 86, 89, 90
ageing population 28, 35, 73, 95–111, 115–130
agriculture 4, 6, 8, 10, 12–13, 17, 29, 32–33, 35, 47–54, 59, 78–79, 108, 157–163, 168–169, 179–182, 195–197
crisis in 162–165
employment 35, 108, 120, 157, 161–163, 165
productivity 13, 19, 35, 52–54, 157, 161, 163, 165, 180–182, 189, 195, 197–198
research 53
technology of 180–182
aid 4, 80, 88–89
arranged marriage 12, 102, 121–124
autarkic policies 77, 80
bachelors 102–103, 106–108, 122
balance of payments 78–82, 85–87, 90
bank nationalization (India) 1969 57–58
Bhopal gas disaster (1984) 193, 199–202, 207
brideprice 103, 119, 123
Cai Fang 36–37, 41
capital account 9, 79–83, 85
capital accumulation 49–50, 57–59, 169–170, 177, 188, 190
capital inflows and outflows 79
capital market 39, 67, 72
carbon emissions 16–17, 91, 175, 179, 184–188, 195
casualization of employment 12, 102, 120, 163, 166–168
child and infant mortality 7, 11, 96, 98, 115–116, 118, 121
child labour 162, 165–166
childcare 34, 108–109, 128, 130
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 1–2, 37, 102
Chipko movement 198
city policy 138–139, 141–142, 148, 152
climate change 16, 17, 88, 91, 175, 182, 184–185, 188, 195–196
climate stabilization 184–189
competitive society 101–102, 121, 125
construction 8, 32, 34, 36, 41, 51, 56, 143, 146, 166–168
consumption as proportion of GDP 5–6, 8, 10, 27–28, 30–31, 33, 36–39, 42–43, 66–67, 87–88, 188
contraception 115–116
corruption 1, 18, 127, 189, 196, 198
daughter aversion 115, 118, 124, 127, 130
debt as percentage of GDP 5
debt inflows 83, 85
decarbonization 17–18, 185–186, 189
(p.214) deforestation 185, 197–198
democracy 197–199, 206–207
demography
dividend 12, 101, 119–120, 127, 130
of migrants 145–146
dependency ratio 12, 28, 100–101, 120
diaspora 86–87
dibao (Minimum Livelihood Guarantee) 36, 38–40
discrimination against rural migrants to cities 15, 139–149
disease 7, 10, 17, 95, 115, 129, 179, 199
dispossession 158, 169
domestic economy 3, 8, 27–43, 47–59
dualism 4, 8, 51, 59
ecology
deficit 179
footprint 17, 178–179, 193–194
sustainability 16–19, 175–190, 193–207
economy
crisis of 1991 (India) 1, 78, 81, 87
domestic 3, 8, 27–43, 47–59
growth limits 175–190
protection 5, 53, 69, 77–78
reforms 1, 47, 53, 55, 57–59, 157
reforms 1991 78, 80
stimulus package (1990s) 37; (2008) 8, 15, 34, 36–38, 41, 150
structural change 50, 52
elderly people 12–13, 100, 109–111, 124, 127–130
emergency of 1970s (India) 11, 166
emissions reduction 184–187
energy
efficiency 18, 186, 189
use 10, 18, 36, 175, 178–181, 188, 199
environment 2, 4, 16–18, 33, 37–38, 56, 65, 73, 91, 175–190, 193–212
degradation 175, 178, 181, 189, 194, 206
governance 196–203
impact 73, 175–177, 183, 189
protection 37, 56, 73, 203
regulation 188–189
exchange rate 6, 66, 70, 85, 88, 90–91
exports 3–4, 6, 8–9, 27, 30, 33–34, 37, 39, 41–42, 47, 52, 55, 58–59, 65–67, 69–70, 73–74, 77, 79–80, 88–90, 160, 184
proportion of GDP 77, 79
family planning 11, 97, 107
family size 10–11, 95–99, 116
famine 18, 95–96
female child mortality 118, 121
fertility 10–11, 95–101, 107–109, 115–121, 124
decline, regional variation 115–117, 120, 123–125, 130
(p.215) financial deregulation 81, 86–87
floating population 140–144
food availability 15–17, 27, 33, 86, 95, 98, 115, 141, 146, 168, 175, 179–180, 182, 186, 195
foreign acquisitions by Indian companies 81–84
foreign companies 3, 29, 55, 65, 67–70
foreign currency reserves 4, 70
foreign direct investment (FDI) 3, 9, 29, 55, 65–74, 78–85, 143–144
inward FDI 65–70, 74, 80–84, 143–144
outward FDI 65–67, 70–72, 74, 81–84, 86
foreign exchange 1, 4, 66, 79
foreign portfolio investment 80–81, 83
forestry 14, 193, 195–198, 206
fossil fuel 10, 16–17, 179, 182, 185–187
Gandhi, Indira 57
gender bias 12, 117, 119, 123
gender imbalance 28, 96–110, 121
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 193, 199–200, 203–204, 207
geographical mobility 109, 139–152
girls, discrimination against 11, 28, 97–98, 107–108, 117–118
global engagement 77–88
global impact 88, 90
global warming 91, 184–186
government
economic policy 8, 29–30, 33, 35–36, 38, 41–42, 54, 57–58, 68–70, 72, 78–83
social policy 87, 96–97, 188–189, 196–197, 199, 203
great growth debate 57–58
Great Leap Forward 35, 97
Green Revolution 52–53
greenhouse gases 16–18, 178, 180, 184–185
growth and employment, relationship between 13–14, 85–86, 158–171
growth model 9, 33, 35–37, 41–43, 58, 78, 178–179, 187
health care 5, 7, 8, 12–15, 17, 36, 38, 43, 67, 73, 83, 86, 95–96, 108–109, 120, 127, 129, 142, 149, 170, 178–179, 195–196, 199, 202
home-working 164
household
consumption 5, 28, 30, 43, 66–67, 86–87, 123
income 28–31, 33, 37, 40, 43, 66, 161, 165–166, 178
registration system (hukou) 14–15, 27, 33, 140–141, 144, 150–151
housing 8, 36, 38, 141, 146, 148, 151
human rights 148, 151, 193, 198, 206
import restrictions 77–78
imports, proportion of GDP 79–80, 184
income
inequality 2, 6, 27–28, 32–33, 36, 39–40, 43, 66, 86–87, 96, 99, 101, 120, 123, 142, 165, 177–178
maintenance transfers (dibao) 38–40
per capita 6, 29, 31, 33, 39, 48–50
redistribution 37, 85–86, 188–189
industry
industrial relations 15–16, 166–167
industrial restructuring 68–69
industrialization 3, 18, 47, 77, 85, 99, 141, 165, 197, 202
inequality, urban and rural 6, 27–28, 31–32, 99
infanticide 11, 98
informal economy 1, 3–4, 13–15, 29, 51–52, 120, 159–160, 163, 165, 167–170
information technology (IT) services 9, 55, 65, 79–80, 84, 87, 160
infrastructure investment 34, 36–38, 43, 58–59, 66, 68–69, 73, 150, 177, 186
innovation 3, 19, 38, 54, 65–70, 72–74
intellectual property rights 68, 70
interest rates 5, 28, 30, 43, 66, 85
intergenerational contract 12, 101, 109–111, 115, 119, 121, 127–130
(p.216) international economy 65–74, 77–91
internationalization of companies 65, 72–73
IPAT formula 178, 186
irrigation 36, 53, 179–182, 193, 196–199, 202, 206
job creation 8, 13, 29, 37, 39, 55, 59, 85, 120, 125, 130, 164
jobless growth 13–14, 36–37, 120, 160–161, 163, 168
knowledge sector 3, 59, 70
labour
excluded 14, 160, 167, 169–170
labour/land ratio 53
market 6, 15, 34–35, 39, 41, 85, 99, 101, 108, 163, 165, 188–189
shortages 34–35, 37, 41, 150
surplus 28–29, 33–35, 42, 99
unskilled 85–86, 164
land
degradation 179, 194–195
landlordism 158–159
ownership 129, 158–159
Lewis model 34–35, 41–42
liberalization 3, 6, 9, 29, 54, 78, 81, 83–86, 123, 160, 165, 168
Licence Raj 9, 54, 59, 78
life expectancy 10, 73, 95–96, 109, 127
low-skilled workers 86–87, 143
malnutrition 7, 10, 18
manufacturing 3, 8, 36–37, 47–52, 54–56, 59, 80, 143, 147, 158, 165–166, 168
Maoists (India) 158
market
market-based economy 29, 101, 188
market-oriented economic reforms 57, 95–96, 143–144
marriage 101–108, 118–124
marriage age 12, 102–104, 107–108, 115, 120, 124
marriage market 28, 101–108, 118–126, 130
marriage migration 12, 101, 103, 105–106, 125–126
patrilocal 118–119, 124–126
squeeze 119, 121–123
medical services 95, 98, 151
migrants’ workers 35–36, 39–41, 102, 139–152
living conditions 148–152
remittances 10, 80, 86–87, 110, 140, 149–150
rights, campaign for 150
working conditions 146–147, 151
migration
consequences 149–150
extent of 144
external 9–10, 331, 83, 86–87
seasonal 163
military expenditure 6–7
mineral resources 176, 188
Minimum Livelihood Guarantee (dibao) 36, 38–40
mortality 95–96, 115
multinational companies 4, 71, 80–81, 83–84, 86
natural resources 27, 29, 175–177, 179, 182–183, 185–186
New Delhi pollution and transport policy 193, 200, 203–204
non-agricultural rural employment 33–35, 51–52, 162–163
non-renewable resources 175–177, 179, 182–183, 185
nuclear power 186, 193, 199–200, 204–206
obesity 10
one child family policy 11, 73, 97–99, 107, 109
(p.217) organization of informal workers 167–168
outsourcing to India 80
Panchayati Raj system of local government 1
patrilocal marriage 118–119, 124–126
pensions 38–39, 109, 127, 149
planned economy 141–142, 177
political protest 15, 158, 163, 167–168
population 97, 161, 176–177, 179, 185, 193
poverty 6, 53, 162, 170, 195
poverty reduction 8, 51, 85
private enterprise 188–189
private investment 3
private ownership 3, 178
productivity 4, 41–42, 49–54, 57–59, 70, 84, 165, 195
prostitution 12, 108
public investment 57–58
public ownership 189
public sector 3, 54
public services 142–143, 178
public spending 196, 198
public transport 36, 43, 202–203
rationing 141–143
rebalancing 3, 27, 35, 37, 41–43, 189
recession of 2008, effects of 35–36
regional inequality 27, 39–40, 66
residence permits 151
resources
constraints 87
consumption of 176–177, 182
management 193–194, 196–199, 206
renewable 175–177, 186
restructure of 1990s 30
restructuring 65–69
retail sector 167
retirement age 109
risk management 201–207
rural distress 163–165
rural employment programmes 8, 168
rural infrastructure 36, 38
rural migrant labour (nongmingong) 141–142
rural–urban migration 33, 99, 139–150, 163
sanitation 7
savings 5–6, 27–28, 30, 33, 58, 66–67, 78, 110
schools for migrant children 148
self-employment 14, 147, 159–160, 163–164, 166, 168
self-reliance 77
service sector 3–4, 47–52, 55, 59, 67, 147, 158, 160, 168
sex bias 123–125
sex ratios 97–100, 102, 106–107, 117, 119
sex-selective abortion 11, 98–99, 117–118, 121, 127
slums 15
small and medium enterprises (SMEs) 5, 29, 57, 67
small-scale producers 158
social security 51, 148–149
son preference 124–127
species extinction 193, 195
state
monopolies 5, 54, 57
support for capitalism 1, 57
state-owned corporations 86
state-owned enterprises (SOEs) 3, 5, 29, 30, 32, 42, 54–55, 67, 70, 72, 178
statist model of development 78
supply-side structures 4–5
tariffs 77–78
tax
income 33, 68
taxation 2, 29, 188–189, 197
taxsharing 2
technological innovation 3
technological progress 176–177, 182, 197
Tehri Dam 193, 200, 202, 207
telecommunications 3, 67, 55, 83
(p.218) trade
between India and China 86
hotel and restaurants sector 55
liberalization 3, 59, 78, 84–85
trafficking of women 12, 108, 123
unemployment 15, 29, 35–36, 74, 102, 120, 122, 149
unskilled labour 85–86, 164
urban management 142–143
urbanization 14–15, 48, 56, 96, 99, 126, 181
wage arrears 147, 151
Wen Jiabao 36, 68, 147
widows 127–128
women
autonomy 116, 118–119, 121
trafficking of 12, 108, 123
violence against 120, 124, 126
workforce participation 5, 12–13, 96, 108, 120, 124, 130, 163–166, 198
working conditions 140, 146–147
World Economic Forum 36
World Trade Organization 9, 42, 67
Xi Jinping 68 (p.219) (p.220) (p.221) (p.222)