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Early FarmersThe View from Archaeology and Science$

Alasdair Whittle and Penny Bickle

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780197265758

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197265758.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM BRITISH ACADEMY SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.britishacademy.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright British Academy, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in BASO for personal use.date: 03 June 2020

(p.ix) Illustrations

(p.ix) Illustrations

Early Farmers
British Academy


  1. 1.1 The distribution of the Linearbandkeramik Neolithic culture across Europe, showing earliest and later phases 3

  2. 1.2 87Sr/86Sr versus 1/Sr concentration ppm from adult individuals sampled as part of the LBK lifeways project 5

  3. 1.3 The Vedrovice LBK cemetery, showing possible clusters of burials 6

  4. 1.4 Burial 13 from Rutzing, Upper Austria 7

  5. 1.5 Burial 151 from the Schwetzingen cemetery 9

  6. (p.x) 4.1 Estimated average change in spring temperatures and precipitation in the LBK area, in the 5550–4900 cal BC chronological window 57

  7. 4.2 Map of estimated soil fertility in the LBK cultural area 58

  8. 5.1 Map of the Carpathian Basin, showing the studied LBK and Szakálhát culture dissemination areas and the sampled archaeological sites 74

  9. 5.2 Principal component analysis of 18 prehistoric mtDNA datasets 82

  10. 5.3 Multidimensional scaling of 18 prehistoric cultural formations 83

  11. 5.4 Shared haplotype analysis. Proportion of shared haplotypes between hunter-gatherers, Carpathian Basin SZA and LBK cultures, and central European LBK groups 84

  12. 6.1 Comparative analyses of the haplogroup and haplotype composition among hunter-gatherers and distant LBK groups from Central Europe 102

  13. 6.2 Results of the shared haplotype analysis 103

  14. 7.1 Map of Romania and the study area, with location of the sites mentioned in the text 116

  15. 7.2 Results from bone collagen stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis 125

  16. 7.3 Results from sequential stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis in cattle third molar enamel bioapatite 126

  17. 7.4 Amplitude of intra-tooth variation in (δ‎13C) and (δ‎18O) values measured in cattle tooth enamel bioapatite 127

  18. 7.5 Results from sequential stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis in enamel bioapatite from two sheep second and third molars 127

  19. 7.6 Stable carbon isotope composition of sheep and cattle diet 127

  20. 7.7 Position of the maximum values in the δ‎18O sequences measured in the cattle third molars 129

  21. 8.1 Map of the Apulian Tavoliere with sites investigated 145

  22. 8.2 The plan of the ditched village of Passo di Corvo 146

  23. 8.3 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data of humans and animals from Passo di Corvo, Masseria Candelaro and Grotta Scaloria (GS) 150

  24. 8.4 Mean stable nitrogen ratios with ranges for both human and animal specimens at Passo di Corvo, Masseria Candelaro and Grotta Scaloria 151

  25. 9.1 Map of the main LBK sites excavated in the Aisne Valley (France) 161

  26. 9.2 The LBK site of Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes (Aisne) 162

  27. 9.3 Relative proportions of domestic and wild fauna in the best-preserved houses of Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes 167

  28. 9.4 Relative proportions of grinding tools and abrading tools in the best-preserved houses of Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes 168

  29. (p.xi) 9.5 Schematic representation of the correlation between the size of the houses, the fauna and the macrolithic tools on the LBK sites of the Aisne valley 172

  30. 9.6 Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes, ceramic stage 3, final occupation: main characteristics of the households combining fauna and macrolithic tools 173

  31. 10.1 The Harvesters by Pieter Bruegel the Elder 182

  32. 10.2 Δ‎13C and δ‎15N values of cereal and pulse samples at five Neolithic sites 187

  33. 11.1 A map showing the locations of Neustadt and Wangels in Schleswig-Holstein, the sites from which pottery was sampled for residue analysis of lipids and plant microfossils 202

  34. 11.2 GC-c-IRMS analysis of Ertebølle and Funnel Beaker cooking vessels 204

  35. 11.3 Plot of starch counts in charred surface deposits against bulk δ‎13C and δ‎15N values 206

  36. 11.4 GC-c-IRMS analysis of Early Neolithic ceramic vessels distinguished by vessel type 207

  37. 12.1 Dental caries prevalence in settings in east Asia, Europe, west Asia, and North America 219

  38. 12.2 Ante-mortem tooth loss prevalence in settings in east Asia, Europe, west Asia, and North America 220

  39. 12.3 Osteoperiostitis prevalence in settings in east Asia, Europe, west Asia, and North America 223

  40. 12.4 Adult height (stature) estimates from settings in east Asia, Europe, west Asia, and North America 224

  41. 12.5 Temporal trends in prevalence of dental caries, ante-mortem tooth loss, and osteoperiostitis in Classical Antiquity through Industrial/Modern periods in Europe 226

  42. 13.1 Plan of Çatalhöyük, Turkey 234

  43. 13.2 Building 77 showing plastered platform with horns and plastered calf skull embedded in the wall 236

  44. 13.3 Figurine 12401.X7, showing a fleshed front and skeletonised back 237

  45. 13.4 Isotope data from adults buried beneath buildings from the South Area 238

  46. 13.5 Human isotope data according to age stage 239

  47. 13.6 Assemblage of figurines showing emphasised buttocks, flattened or drooping breasts and stomachs 242

  48. 13.7 Skeleton 10829 with associated finds 245

  49. 13.8 Skeleton 10813 with associated finds 246

  50. 14.1 Location of Neolithic sites in the Central Zagros 255

  51. (p.xii) 14.2 GC trace showing sterols in C804 S1.2 257

  52. 15.1 Adult left parietal with active lytic lesion indicating a probable cyst 284

  53. 15.2 Adult male with large healed injury (‘pond fracture’) to lower right parietal 286

  54. 15.3 Adult male with healed fracture to left zygomatic arch 286

  55. 15.4 Adult female with unhealed perforations to parietals 287

  56. 15.5 Adult ?female with healed fracture of right zygomatic arch 290

  57. 15.6a Adult male with probable unhealed blunt force traumata to right parietal 291

  58. 15.6b Internal view, showing patinated bevels 291

  59. 15.7 Adult male with unhealed circular perforation to left superior fronto-parietal region 292

  60. 15.8 Adult? frontal fragment with probable peri-mortem injury 294

  61. 15.9a Adult with probable peri-mortem injury to upper posterior left parietal 295

  62. 15.9b Internal view, showing patinated bevels 295

  63. 15.10 Comparison of percentage of elements >75% complete for southern Scandinavia and Britain/Ireland 296

  64. 15.11 Comparison of crude cranial injury prevalence data for southern Scandinavia and Britain/Ireland 297

  65. 16.1 Map of Germany with location of the three mass graves of Talheim (Baden-Württemberg), Wiederstedt (Sachsen-Anhalt), and Kilianstädten (Hessen) 308

  66. 16.2 Two ‘standard’ LBK inhumations from Sachsen-Anhalt 310

  67. 16.3 Mass graves of the LBK 313

  68. 16.4 Working typology of deviant treatment of deceased in the LBK 318

  69. 18.1 Map showing Early Neolithic sites sampled as part of SCHERD 351

  70. 18.2 Shoulder sherd from an Early Neolithic Carinated Bowl from Monanny 352

  71. 18.3 Plans of the Early Neolithic houses from Haggardstown, county Louth, Upper Campsie, County Derry and Monanny, County Monaghan 356

  72. 18.4 High Temperature Gas Chromatogram showing the trimethylsilylated total lipid extract containing lipid components characteristic of a degraded animal fat, from sherd UPC-8 from the Early Neolithic settlement at Upper Campsie, Derry 357

  73. 18.5 Scatter plots showing δ‎13C values determined from C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids preserved in pottery from Irish Early Neolithic causewayed enclosures and house sites 358

  74. 18.6 The alder basket from Carrigdirty Rock, County Limerick 360

  75. 19.1 Axehead of jadeitite from Mont Viso, found beside the Sweet Track, and deposited around 3807/3806 BC 383

  76. (p.xiii) 19.2 Examples of Alpine axeheads with glasssy polish, found in Britain 385

  77. 20.1 Trapezoidal houses at Lepenski Vir 395

  78. 20.2 Dimensional analysis of Lepenski Vir trapezoidal houses 396

  79. 20.3 Footed handled mug, Yasa Tepe 398

  80. 20.4 Nephrite polished stone ‘swastika’, Early Neolithic Kărdzhali 399

  81. 20.5 Trichrome painted ware vessel, Scânteia 400

  82. 20.6 Facetted carnelian beads, Varna Cemetery I 402

  83. 20.7 Textile impressions, Hódmezővásárhely-Kökénydomb, Late Neolithic Tisza Culture 404

  84. 20.8 Calendrical objects: the Slatino oven model 407

  85. 20.9 Calendrical objects: ends of three altars, from a set of ritual objects, Ovcharovo 408

  86. 20.10 Calendrical objects: the Vučedol calendrical vessel 409


  1. 2.1 The shift in Neolithic studies 27

  2. 5.1 Summary of the sampled archaeological sites from the Carpathian Basin 75

  3. 5.2 Haplogroup frequencies of the Szakálhát culture and the Linearbandkeramik culture in Transdanubia 81

  4. 6.1 Archaeological, anthropological, palaeogenetic, and strontium isotope data of the LBK burials at the settlement of Karsdorf 98

  5. 7.1 Results from radiocarbon dating of bone collagen from Cheia 118

  6. 7.2 Results from bone collagen analysis: collagen extraction yield, collagen carbon and nitrogen contents, atomic C/N ratio, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios 119

  7. 7.3 Results from stable carbon analysis (δ‎13C) of enamel bioapatite carbonate 128

  8. 7.4 Results from the calculation of the best fit applied to the cattle third molar data sets 129

  9. 7.5 Results from stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions measured in tooth enamel bioapatite 135

  10. 8.1 Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human and animal bone collagen 148

  11. 9.1 Number of faunal remains and macrolithic tools by main categories for the 33 households of Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes 165

  12. 9.2 Correlation between the characteristics of the houses, fauna and functional categories of macrolithic tools in Cuiry-lès-Chaudardes 170

  13. (p.xiv) 9.3 Correlation between the characteristics of the houses, fauna and functional categories of macrolithic tools on a sample of households from six sites of the Aisne Valley 171

  14. 10.1 The relevance of weed ecology and crop stable isotopes to key aspects of farming 184

  15. 10.2 Linear-mixing model parameters and outputs used for estimating the fraction of animal protein of total dietary protein in human diets at Vaihingen 191

  16. 11.1 Main classes of lipids identified in pottery vessels from Neustadt and Wangels 203

  17. 12.1 Comparative bioarchaeological investigations of the foraging to farming transition 218

  18. 13.1 Groups of bodily trait occurrences 241

  19. 15.1 Crude prevalence of healed and unhealed injuries by age/sex class for the southern Scandinavian material 285

  20. 15.2 Comparison of healed and unhealed trauma to individual elements in the southern Scandinavian sample 289

  21. 15.3 Crude prevalence of healed and unhealed injuries by age/sex class for the British and Irish material 290

  22. 15.4 Comparison of healed and unhealed trauma to individual elements in the British and Irish sample 293

  23. 15.5 Comparison of the number of individual cranial elements for southern Scandinavia and Britain and Ireland 296

  24. 20.1 Simplified chronological framework for the Balkan Neolithic and Chalcolithic 392

  25. 20.2 Multiples of ‘basic Copper Age unit’ of weight in gold objects, Varna Cemetery I 406