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From Anatolia to AcehOttomans, Turks, and Southeast Asia$
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Andrew Peacock and Annabel Teh Gallop

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780197265819

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: September 2015

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197265819.001.0001

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Middle Eastern States and the Philippines under Early American Rule, 1898–1919

Middle Eastern States and the Philippines under Early American Rule, 1898–1919

(p.199) 9 Middle Eastern States and the Philippines under Early American Rule, 1898–1919
From Anatolia to Aceh

William G. Clarence-Smith

British Academy

Faced with Moro Muslim resistance in the southern Philippines from 1898, America sought help from Middle Eastern rulers. The Ottoman Empire played the central role, although Egypt and Persia also became involved. In 1899 the American ambassador in Istanbul persuaded the sultan, as Caliph, to order the Moros to submit. In 1913 the Ottoman sultan appointed a ‘high teacher’ for the Moros, Shaykh Wajih al-Kilani, from Palestine. Expelled from the Philippines by the Americans in early 1914, Wajih went to Washington to plead his cause, but died in Virginia in 1916. The Ottomans usually relied on European consuls to protect their nationals resident in the Philippines, but the ‘Young Turks’ appointed a career consul in Manila in 1910–11. After April 1917, Ottoman subjects became ‘allies of enemy’, despite the largely ‘Syrian’ community protesting its allegiance to the USA. After the First World War, the US ceased to court Middle Eastern states.

Keywords:   Philippines, Moro Muslims, USA, Ottoman Empire, Wajih al-Kilani, consuls, First World War

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