French novels were promoted and disseminated in Victorian England not only through libraries, booksellers, and periodicals, but also through individual members of cosmopolitan networks. Parisian salons formed one way in which French and English men of letters came into contact, but three further types of networks played important roles in strengthening ties across the Channel. Fashionable society (and in particular the circle led by Lady Blessington and the comte d’Orsay), circles that developed through political affiliations (such as the radical and feminist group that launched a project to translate George Sand’s works), and the world of professional men of letters who reviewed French novels and often socialized with their creators, also expanded the market for foreign literature, or at least tried to do so.
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