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Growing up in Diverse SocietiesThe Integration of the Children of Immigrants in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden$

Frank Kalter, Jan O. Jonsson, Frank van Tubergen, and Anthony Heath

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780197266373

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197266373.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM BRITISH ACADEMY SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.britishacademy.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright British Academy, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in BASO for personal use.date: 27 May 2020

(p.398) Index

(p.398) Index

Source:
Growing up in Diverse Societies
Publisher:
British Academy

Page numbers in bold refer to tables; page numbers in italics refer to figures.

acculturation 8, 56, 277, 281, 335
delinquency and 335–6, 340–1, 357
delinquency and selective acculturation 336, 337, 341, 353–5, 357
dissonant acculturation 341
mental well-being and 20, 370, 373, 383, 385, 386
sexual liberalism and 303–304, 322 see also adaptation; assimilation; culture
age on arrival (migrant’s age on arrival) 13, 20, 65–6, 288, 290
language and 222, 226, 227, 230, 230, 233
Agirdag, Orhan 278
Alba, R. 7, 8, 12, 34, 64, 247
Allport, G.W. 203
Anderson, Benedict 274, 290
assimilation 250, 282, 307, 308, 311, 336
England 289
Germany 276, 282, 289
identificational assimilation 276, 290, 294
integration and, 6, 8
segmented assimilation 8, 10, 250, 308, 336, 341, 353
‘three-generation-assimilation-cycle’ 63 see also acculturation; integration
Baerveldt, C. 177
Banting, K. 54
Berardi, L. 336, 339, 340, 355
Berry, John 8, 34, 277, 281
Blau, Peter 186
Bucerius, S.M. 336, 339, 340, 355
bullying 21, 383
Cheung, S.Y. 80
Chicago School 63
child friendliness 11, 12, 29, 57
Chiswick, B.R. 222
CILS4EU (Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries) 4–5, 37–9, 81, 85–6, 129–30, 336–7, 341–3, 356, 357, 386
dealing with diversity in comparative analyses 78–81
four survey countries 4, 15–16, 28–9, 31–2, 38, 39, 42
origin country 69–70
citizenship 12, 53–4, 277
CIVIX (Civic Integration Policy Index) 53
Coleman, J.S. 371
contact theory 18, 176, 202–203
culture:
cultural integration 6–7, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18, 32, 37, 55, 321, 336, 337, 357
family structure in cultural perspective 146–7, 157, 159, 164, 165, 166
origin culture 3, 12, 13 see also acculturation; exposure influences
Deaton, A.S. 87
delinquency 7, 20, 21, 27, 30, 335, 360–8
acculturation 336, 340–1, 357
assimilation 336
cultural heritage 340
cultural and social integration 336, 337, 357 (p.399)
determinants of 337–8, 340, 348–51, 350, 354, 356
England 345, 346, 348, 351–2, 353, 356, 357
ethnic differences in 338–41, 347–8, 347, 351–3, 356
generational status 339, 345–7, 346, 352, 355–6
immigration–crime nexus 335
integration and 335, 336
ISRD-2: 339
language use 353, 355, 357
majority friendship and 20, 353, 355, 357
majority youth 131, 344
minority boys 20, 344, 348, 351–2, 351, 353, 355, 356–7
minority youth 344, 354
personal morality 338, 350–1, 352, 353, 356
routine activities 338, 340, 342, 349–50, 351–2, 353, 356–7
selective acculturation and 336, 337, 341, 353–5, 357
self-control 338, 342, 349, 350, 351–2, 353, 356
self-reported delinquency 337, 338–9, 340, 341, 342
socioeconomic dimension 340, 349, 352, 353
VLNM 340
descendant of immigrants see minority children/youth
destination country 8, 14, 15
ethnic diversity in 3, 29, 45, 57, 63, 68, 71, 78–81, 166
immigrant scepticism 51–2, 52, 54, 56
integration and destination country influences 10–12, 28–9, 41, 282
integration policies 31–2, 52–4, 53, 54
key destination-country characteristics 41–5, 42
minority integration in 56–8
natives’ attitudes to immigrants 51–2, 56
school system 55–6 see also England; Germany; the Netherlands; Sweden
discrimination 4, 56, 117, 202
mental well-being and 370, 373, 383, 386
national identity and 19, 277, 289, 290–4, 293, 295
Dollmann, Jörg 219–45
economic situation 16, 30, 85–6, 146
conspicuous consumption 89
economic inequality 43, 88, 117
economic integration 86, 90, 93
England 16, 17, 43, 45, 89, 90, 95, 102, 131, 132
family structure 146, 157, 160–1, 164, 165, 166
Germany 44–5, 95, 102
having one’s own room 16, 89, 99, 102, 106–13
household/child economic resources relation 97
immigrant disadvantage 16, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 96, 99, 102, 166
integration and 85, 103
majority youth 16, 21, 88–9, 96–7, 102
minority youth 16, 85, 88–9, 96–7
the Netherlands 88, 90, 95, 102
parental economic resources 89–94, 102–103
Sweden 32, 44–5, 88, 102
youth’s economic living standards 86–8, 102
youth’s economic and material deprivation 99–102
youth’s own resources 85, 89, 94–7, 95, 131
youth’s paid work 11, 85, 95–9, 95, 100, 103 see also inequality; poverty; socioeconomic dimension
education see school
England 4, 15, 29, 40
assimilation 289
delinquency 345, 346, 348, 351–2, 353, 356, 357
economic situation 16, 17, 43, 45, 89, 90, 95, 102, 131, 132
immigrant groups characteristics 46, 48, 49, 57, 71, 75, 283
immigrant scepticism 51, 54
integration 12, 28
language 18, 29, 31, 50, 57, 131, 227, 233 (p.400)
religion/religiosity 248–9, 253, 285–6
school segregation 16, 115, 118, 123, 124, 129, 130, 131, 132
welfare state 43, 57, 89, 275 see also destination country
Enzmann, D. 339
ethnic diversity 3–4, 30, 31, 46, 51, 275, 303
destination countries and 3, 29, 45, 57, 63, 68, 71–2, 78–81, 166
inter-ethnic attitudes and 18, 211–12, 212, 213, 214
ethnic identity 28, 74, 75, 176, 233, 279–80, 281, 383, 386
ethnic minority see minority children/youth
ethnicity:
ethnic homophily and 191–2
reactive ethnicity 250, 277, 291
exposure influences 12–14, 15, 27–8, 34
language and 18, 220, 221–2, 225, 226, 231–2, 234, 235 see also immigrant generation
family structure 17, 21, 23, 30, 31, 99, 143–4, 166
cultural perspective 146–7, 157, 159, 164, 165, 166
differences between children of immigrants and majority children 148–50, 149
differences between ethnic minority groups and the majority 150–3, 151, 165–6
divorce/separation 143, 144, 145–6, 147, 148, 150, 152, 156, 165
economic perspective/socioeconomic dimension 146, 157, 160–1, 164, 165, 166
father absence 23, 31, 144, 152, 165, 166
father/child tie 144–5, 148–50, 149, 151, 152–3, 155, 157, 158, 158, 159, 161, 164, 166, 169–75
generational status 27, 153, 156, 158, 158, 164, 165
intact family 148, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 159, 161, 164, 165
mental well-being and 20, 369, 371, 384, 385
migration, role of 17, 144, 145–6, 148, 152, 156–9, 157, 161, 164, 165, 166
non-intact/disrupted family 17, 149, 153, 158, 159, 161, 165
religion and 17, 147, 152, 153, 157, 159, 160, 164, 165
single parenthood 117, 131, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 165
understanding group differences 161, 162–3, 164, 165, 166
Feld, S.L. 201
Finnish (in Sweden) 47, 75, 76, 78, 118, 121
Fleischmann, Fenella 246–73, 278
Foner, N. 8, 12, 34, 247
gender:
delinquency and minority boys 20, 344, 348, 351–2, 351, 353, 355, 356–7
mental well-being and gender intensification hypothesis 370, 372, 374–5, 378–81, 380, 385
religion/religiosity and 246, 260–1, 264
sexual liberalism and 317, 318
generation see immigrant generation
Germany 4, 12, 40, 44
assimilation 276, 282, 289
economic situation 44–5, 95, 102
immigrant groups characteristics 46, 57, 71, 75, 282–3
integration 28
inter-ethnic attitudes 18, 31, 212, 213
language 18, 226, 227, 232
marginalisation 282, 294
national identity 276, 294
religion/religiosity 75, 248–9, 260, 262–3 (p.401)
school segregation 16–17, 118, 131, 132
sexual liberalism 311, 320, 322 see also destination country
Goodhart, David 275
Goodman, S.W. 53–4
Gordon, Milton 276, 290
Hagendoorn, L. 275
Heath, Anthony 62–82, 223, 274–302
Herfindahl-based diversity index 72, 74
Hewstone, Miles 201–16
Hitlin, S. 304
homophily 201–202
ethnic homophily 17, 33, 178, 185, 187–93, 189, 194
host country see destination country
human capital 9–10, 11, 12, 48–50, 50, 57, 220
ICRI (Indicators of Citizenship Rights for Immigrants) 53
immigrant generation 12, 15, 32–3, 45–6, 62
delinquency and 339, 345–7, 346, 352, 355–6
family structure and 27, 153, 156, 158, 158, 164, 165
first-generation immigrant 65
generation, concept of 63–4
generational status 18, 19, 27, 63–7, 65, 75–8, 76, 77
integration and 77
language and 18, 27, 219, 221–2, 226, 227, 230–1, 230, 232–3, 233
mental well-being and 370, 374, 379, 385
national identity and 19, 27, 277, 288–90, 289, 295
religion and 246, 250, 256–60, 258–9, 265
second generation immigrant 66
sexual liberalism and 305, 307, 311, 312, 313, 315, 322
third generation immigrant 67 see also exposure influences
immigrant groups:
age at immigration 65–6
common immigrant groups 46–8, 57
comparing minority compositions among survey countries 71–2
education, 49–50, 50
key immigrant groups characteristics 40, 45–51, 57
migrants’ reason for moving and human capital 48–50, 49
size of immigrant groups 45–6, 47, 48 see also origin country
inclusion 11, 40, 275
index of dissimilarity 71
Indians (in England) 16, 47, 71, 75, 77, 121, 129, 132, 356
inequality 11–12, 29, 32, 33, 43–4, 56, 274
economic inequality 43, 88, 117
ethnic inequality 6, 116
socioeconomic inequality 10, 33 see also school; socioeconomic dimension; stratification
integration 20–1, 295
civic integration 12, 53–4
concept of 5–8, 12
cultural integration 6–7, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18, 32, 37, 55, 321, 336, 337, 357
as empirical phenomenon 5, 6
inertia and need for realistic expectations 32–4
influences related to origin, destination and exposure 8–14
integration outcomes 9, 16, 34, 63, 78
integration policies 31–2, 52–4, 58
lack of 202
language and 13, 219, 233, 341
mechanisms behind integration 29–31, 30
as multidimensional phenomenon 5, 6, 9, 14, 22, 27
as multisided phenomenon 5, 7, 15, 17, 18
similar, yet different 20–2
social integration 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 32, 37, 55, 56, 219, 292, 294, 295, 336, 337, 357, 384
socioeconomic dimension and 32
structural integration 6, 12, 14, 16, 32, 34, 37, 40, 55, 56, 308, 336
studies on 4, 8, 62 see also acculturation; adaptation; assimilation (p.402)
inter-ethnic attitudes 18, 30, 201
classroom diversity 18, 214
clubs 18, 206–107, 213
effects of intergroup contact on students’ intergroup attitudes 211–12, 213
ethnic diversity effect 18, 211–12, 212, 213, 214
Germany 18, 31, 212, 213
in-group attitudes 210–11, 210
intergroup attitudes 205, 207–11, 208, 209
intergroup contact 205
intergroup contact in schools, 206–207
majority children 18, 210, 213
minority children 18, 29, 208, 209
opportunity structure 33, 114, 213
prejudice 202–203, 214
school as key context for mixing 203–205, 207, 212–14
Sweden 18, 29, 204
inter-ethnic friendship 6, 17, 21, 27, 30, 176–8, 190, 193, 233
ethnic boundaries 176–7, 178, 179, 181, 194
ethnic homophily 17, 33, 178, 185, 187–93, 189, 194
ethnic segregation of friendships 177–8, 181–2, 182–3, 196–200
ethnic segregation in schools 178, 183–6, 184, 185, 187, 191, 193
ethnicity and ethnic homophily 191–2
inter-ethnic contacts in the neighbourhood 178, 179, 180, 181, 181, 194
majority youth/minority youth comparison 17, 22, 179, 181–2, 186, 187, 190, 193–4
opportunity structure and group size 17, 33, 178, 186–7, 190, 191, 193
parents and 18, 193, 194
personal networks 177
socioeconomic dimension 192
strong-tie network 177, 178
weak-tie network 177, 178, 179 see also school segregation
intermarried family 66, 77, 177, 256–7, 315, 320, 322, 323
endogamy and exogamy 186
integration 13, 28
language acquisition 230
marriage instability and divorce 145, 156, 165
national identity 19, 288, 289–90
religion in 256–7
sexual liberalism and tolerance 307, 315, 322, 323
Iraqis (in Sweden) 17, 47, 48, 71, 76, 78, 124, 131
ISEI (International Socio-Economic Index of Occupational Status) 129, 161, 229, 317 see also socioeconomic
Jacob, Konstanze 246–73, 274–302
Jaspers, Eva 201–16
Jonsson, Jan O. 3–39, 40–61, 369–97
Junger-Tas, J. 339
Kalmijn, Matthijs 143–75
Kalter, Frank 3–39, 62–82, 114–40
Kilpi-Jakonen, E. 223
Kogan, Irena 303–31
Koopmans, R. 53
Kroneberg, Clemens 335–68
Kruse, Hanno 114–40
Kymlicka, W. 54
labour 21, 40, 57
labour migration 40, 44, 48, 49, 75, 201, 222, 376
unemployment 32, 44, 90, 97, 146, 165, 370, 373, 382
youth’s paid work 11, 16, 85, 95–9, 95, 96, 100, 103
language 18, 23, 30, 42
age on arrival 222, 226, 227, 230, 230, 233
delinquency and language use 353, 355, 357
Dutch 31
efficiency in learning a new language 220, 221, 222–3, 225, 234, 235
England 18, 29, 31, 50, 57, 131, 227, 233
English 13, 18, 31, 50, 131, 223, 224
ethnic origin groups 225, 227–8, 228, 231, 232, 234 (p.403)
exposure influences 18, 220, 221–2, 225, 226, 231–2, 234, 235
generational status 18, 27, 219, 221–2, 226, 227, 230–1, 230, 232–3, 233
German 13, 50
Germany 18, 226, 227, 232
incentives 220, 221, 223–5, 231, 234, 235
integration and 13, 219, 233, 341
language acquisition 27, 29, 32, 220–1, 222, 230
language spoken at home 75, 231, 290, 291
linguistic integration 219, 220, 234, 295
minority disadvantage in language skills 225–7, 229–31, 232, 233
the Netherlands 19, 31
origin country, retention of language of 18–19, 222, 290, 355
proficiency in language of destination-country 18, 19, 50, 131, 219, 222, 223, 234, 235, 277
socioeconomic dimension 31, 32, 223, 224, 229, 230–1, 230, 234, 235
Sweden 225
test scores 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232–3, 238–45
majority children/youth 67
challenges faced by 4, 56
delinquency 20, 131, 344, 353, 355, 357
economic situation 16, 21, 88–9, 96–7, 102
inter-ethnic attitudes 18, 210, 213
paid work 16, 95–6, 98, 100
religion/religiosity 247, 254, 256, 261, 262, 264
sexual liberalism and majority friends 317–18, 321, 323
Marini, M.M. 304
McPherson, M. 201
MENA region 23, 27, 70, 71
sexual liberalism and tolerance 19, 309, 311, 315, 320, 322
mental well-being 7, 20, 21, 27, 30, 369–70
acculturation 20, 370, 373, 383, 385, 386
boys 375, 378
convergence hypothesis 372, 373–4, 378, 381
discrimination 370, 373, 383, 386
ethnic capital 371, 373, 385
externalising problems 20, 375–8, 377, 379, 380, 381–5
gender intensification hypothesis 370, 372, 374–5, 378–81, 380, 385
generational status 370, 374, 379, 385
girls 20, 370, 374–5, 378, 381, 385
immigrant health paradox 371, 376, 384–5
immigrant–majority gap 370, 372–3, 374, 382, 384, 386
immigrant resilience 381–4, 386
internalising problems 20, 370, 373–82, 377, 379, 380, 384, 385, 390–7
origin country 370, 374, 375, 376, 377, 379, 381, 384
poverty and 20, 370, 373
predicting mental well-being for children of immigrant origin 370–3, 373
religiosity 20, 369, 371–2, 373, 384, 385
social capital 371, 373, 383, 386
social stress 20, 370, 373, 386
socioeconomic dimension 20, 21, 369, 371, 382–3, 386
strong family relations 20, 369, 371, 384, 385
Merton, R. 9
migration 201
family structure and 17, 144, 145–6, 148, 152, 156–9, 157, 161, 164, 165, 166
migration selectivity 9, 10, 17, 18, 49–50, 222
positive selection 57, 369–70, 372, 373, 385
Miller, David 274
Miller, P.W. 222
minority children/youth 16, 67
challenges faced by 3–4, 56
delinquency 20, 344, 348, 351–2, 351, 353, 354, 355, 356–7
economic situation 16, 85, 88–9, 96–7 (p.404)
inter-ethnic attitudes 18, 29, 208, 209
national identity 19, 22, 290, 292
paid work 97–9, 100, 103
religion/religiosity 247, 252, 254, 255, 261, 262, 264, 372, 384
MIPEX (Migrant Integration Policy Index) 52–3
Mood, Carina 85–113, 369–97
Moody, James 190
Moroccans (in the Netherlands) 17, 47, 71, 121, 123, 124, 131, 186, 190, 285
Muellbauer, J. 87
multiculturalism 275, 276, 282, 294, 295
MCP index 54
multicultural policies 11, 12, 32, 275, 276, 282
national identity 19, 30, 274–6, 297–302
age on arrival and 288, 290
belonging 19, 278–83, 279, 284, 294
citizenship and 277
discrimination and prejudice 19, 277, 289, 290–4, 293, 295
England 29
ethnic identity and 279–81, 280, 282
ethnicity/ethnic group 283–5, 284, 290, 293, 294
generational status and 19, 27, 277, 288–90, 289, 295
Germany 276, 294
integration 291–2, 291
intermarried family 19, 288, 289–90
minority youth 19, 22, 290, 292
proficiency in language of destination-country 19, 277
religious affiliation and 19, 278, 285–8, 286, 294
social integration 292, 294, 295
Sweden 29, 276, 279, 294–5
transnational family 19, 288, 289
Nee, V. 7, 12
the Netherlands 4
economic situation 88, 90, 95, 102
immigrant groups characteristics 46, 71, 75, 77–8, 283
integration 12, 28
language 19, 31
religion/religiosity 31, 74, 248–9, 262, 263, 265
school segregation 17, 116, 118, 131, 132
welfare state 12, 43, 57 see also destination country
origin country 14, 15, 16, 67–71, 69–70, 72–8, 73, 76, 77
integration and origin country influences 9–10, 22–3, 24–6, 27, 32–4, 282
language and 225, 227–8, 228, 231, 232, 234
mental well-being and 370, 374, 375, 376, 377, 379, 381, 384
sexual liberalism and 304, 305, 306, 309, 310, 315, 316 see also immigrant groups
Pakistanis (in England) 16, 47, 71, 77, 116, 121, 124, 131, 133
Parameshwaran, Meenakshi 219–45
Phalet, K. 278
Piliavin, J.A. 304
PIRLS (Principal Investigators and Research Leaders Survey) 38
PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 38, 39, 115, 222
Plenty, S. 383
Poles 47, 48, 179, 182, 187, 323
poverty 42, 85, 86, 88, 102
England 43, 45
mental well-being and 20, 370, 373
the Netherlands 88
Sweden 32, 44 see also economic situation
Putnam, Robert 275
receiving country see destination country
religion/religiosity 19, 27, 30, 31, 50–1, 74, 246, 252, 253
decline of 247, 248, 250, 261, 265
education and 251, 261–3
England 248–9, 253, 285–6
ethnicity and 246, 255
family structure and 17, 147, 152, 153, 157, 159, 160, 164, 165
gender and 246, 260–1, 264 (p.405)
generational status 246, 250, 256–60, 258–9, 265
Germany 75, 248–9, 260, 262–3
integration and 246, 247, 248, 275–6, 285
majority youth 247, 254, 256, 261, 262, 264
mental well-being 20, 369, 371–2, 373, 384, 385
minority youth 247, 252, 254, 255, 261, 262, 264, 372, 384
national identity and 19, 278, 285–8, 286, 294
the Netherlands 31, 74, 248–9, 262, 263, 265
parents and 247, 251, 256, 257–60, 258–9, 265
religious diversity 21–2, 246, 249–51
religious identity 252, 253, 255, 264–5
religious market 250–1
religious revival 250
religious salience 253, 254, 255–6, 257, 258–9, 259, 260–3, 263, 264, 265, 268–73
school segregation 248
secularism/secularisation 19, 160, 247, 248, 249, 251, 256, 261, 265, 306
socioeconomic dimension 250, 263
state and 247, 249, 306
religions/religious denominations:
Buddhism 159, 160, 285
Catholicism 42, 120, 285, 305, 313, 317
Christianity 19, 42, 51, 75, 160, 246, 249, 250, 252, 253, 255, 260, 264, 276, 285–7, 313
Hinduism 159, 160, 285, 305
Protestantism 42, 285, 313, 317 see also religion/religiosity
Richards, Lindsay 274–302
Rudolphi, Frida 219–45
Schelling, T.C. 117
school 114, 202–203
ethnic composition of 114
immigrants’ children in destination-country school system 55–6
integration into the school system 21, 40 see also inequality
school segregation 16–17, 22, 23, 30, 55, 56, 114–15, 202
ability tracking 17, 55–6, 115, 116, 118–19, 120, 127–8, 128, 132
causes for 116–20, 132–3
England 16, 115, 118, 123, 124, 129, 130, 131, 132
exposure to majority/minority groups 121, 122, 123–4, 125, 127, 131–2, 133, 136–40
Germany 16–17, 118, 131, 132
majority exposure in school and learning-related school characteristics 129–31, 132
the Netherlands 17, 116, 118, 131, 132
religion and 248
residential segregation 17, 22, 23, 30, 55, 114–15, 116–18, 120, 123–4, 126, 127, 128, 132
school choice preferences and native flight 17, 119–20, 128, 132
socioeconomic dimension/ISEI 119, 129, 130, 131
Sweden 17, 118, 123, 124, 131 see also inter-ethnic friendship
Schwartz, S.H. 304
segregation 8, 10
ethnic segregation 13, 21, 32, 33, 177–8, 201, 202
‘parallel lives’ 22, 290–1, 292
social segregation 22, 295
sending country see origin country
Serbs (in Germany) 16–17, 121, 124, 131, 190
sexual liberalism and tolerance 19, 23, 27, 30, 51, 303–304, 326–31
abortion 19, 22, 304, 305, 309, 311
acculturation and 303–304, 322
assimilation theory 307, 308, 311 (p.406)
Christians 19, 305, 313, 317
cohabitation outside marriage 19, 22, 304, 305, 309, 311
country of origin/ethno-national heritage 304, 305, 306, 309, 310, 315, 316
determinants of attitudes towards sexual liberalisation 313–18, 320
education and 303, 317
gender and 317, 318
generational status 305, 307, 311, 312, 313, 315, 322
Germany 311, 320, 322
homosexuality 19, 304, 305, 309, 311
intergenerational value transmission 304, 305, 308, 318–21, 319–20, 321, 322
intermarried family 307, 315, 322, 323
low values of sexual liberalisation 306, 322
majority friends and 317–18, 321, 323
MENA+ countries 19, 309, 311, 315, 320, 322
Muslims 19, 305, 311, 313, 315, 317, 318, 322
religiosity 19, 28, 33, 248, 304, 305, 313, 314, 315, 316, 318, 320, 322
secularism and pluralism 306, 307, 309, 317, 320, 322
socioeconomic dimension 19, 32, 303, 317, 318
Sweden 309, 318, 320, 322
traditional values and conservatism 19, 23, 305, 307, 308, 311, 313, 322
transnational family 307, 313, 315, 322 see also religion/religiosity
Simsek, Müge 246–73
Smith, Sanne 176–200
Sniderman, P.M. 275
social capital 7, 176, 371, 373, 383, 386
social exclusion 21, 202, 370, 373, 381, 383, 384, 386 see also segregation
socialisation 12, 13, 18, 33, 303, 307, 318, 322
bidirectional socialisation 204–205, 214
primary socialisation 10, 13, 32, 143–4, 303
religious socialisation 246, 259, 305
values and 304
socioeconomic dimension (SES) 16, 18, 29, 56, 62–3, 78
delinquency and 340, 349, 352, 353
family structure 17, 146, 153, 157, 160–1, 164, 165, 166
integration and 32
inter-ethnic friendship 192
language and 31, 32, 223, 224, 229, 230–1, 230, 234, 235
mental well-being and 20, 21, 369, 371, 382–3, 386
religion/religiosity 250, 263
school segregation and 119, 120, 129, 130, 131
sexual liberalism and 19, 32, 303, 317, 318
socioeconomic equality 57
socioeconomic inequality 10, 33 see also economic situation
stratification 32, 41, 55
Surinamese (in the Netherlands) 47, 71, 75, 190, 285
Sweden 4, 12, 15, 31, 44, 46
economic situation 32, 44–5, 88, 102
ethnic segregation 32
‘immigrant-friendly’ society 51, 52
immigrant groups characteristics 46, 57, 71, 75–6, 78
integration 11–12, 28, 32
integration policies 32, 52–3, 54, 57, 282
inter-ethnic attitudes 18, 29, 204
language 225
national identity 29, 276, 279, 294–5
refugees in 31, 32, 44, 46, 48, 57, 249, 288
religion/religiosity 31, 75, 248–9, 265
school segregation 17, 118, 123, 124, 131
sexual liberalism 309, 318, 320, 322
welfare state 12, 32, 43, 44, 57, 90 see also destination country
terrorism 246, 275
TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) 38, 39 (p.407)
tolerance 11, 31, 54, 56 see also sexual liberalism and tolerance
transnational family, 66, 158–9, 165
integration 14, 28
language disadvantage 227
national identity 19, 288, 289
sexual liberalism and tolerance 307, 313, 315, 322
Turks 74–5, 74, 76, 94, 118, 186, 191
ethnic homophily 17
in Germany 17, 46, 47, 57, 71, 77, 121, 179, 185, 186, 187, 192, 282–3, 285
in the Netherlands 17, 47, 57, 71, 123, 285
in Sweden 17, 57, 78, 190
Van Tubergen, Frank 3–39, 176–200, 246–73
Verba, Sidney 274
well-being see mental well-being
Wölfer, Ralf 201–16
xenophobia 15, 51