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Researching Forced Labour in the Global EconomyMethodological Challenges and Advances$

Genevieve LeBaron

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780197266472

Published to British Academy Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.5871/bacad/9780197266472.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM BRITISH ACADEMY SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.britishacademy.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright British Academy, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in BASO for personal use.date: 01 June 2020

(p.200) Index

(p.200) Index

Source:
Researching Forced Labour in the Global Economy
Publisher:
British Academy
activism, anti-slavery and anti-trafficking:
19th and early 20th century 184–185, 187–188, 190, 191, 193–194;
adverse impact on child migration 114–115;
compromised or counterproductive campaigns 71–72;
‘exceptional’ cases 61, 65–66, 67, 70–71;
Global North/South divide of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ states 67–69, 71–72;
harnessing of rhetoric to uncomfortable political agendas 72–73;
international activism 67–69;
leading to greater border controls in US 184–185, 190, 191;
Modern Slavery Act 61–66;
new abolitionism 6–7;
political effects of 60–78;
poor quality of knowledge and data on 2–3, 8–9, 47;
research challenges regarding 60–61, 73–74;
resources 2;
roles of civil society and state 62–63, 64, 65, 66;
TIP Report 67–73;
understandings of ‘success’ and failure 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71–72, 73
‘all work or service’ 81
Allain, Jean 10, 28, 31, 32, 84, 94
ancillary services, costs and revenues of 28–29
anti-immigration sentiments 64, 65–66
anti-trafficking activism see activism, anti-slavery and anti-trafficking
Apple:
membership of FLA 139;
tacitly legitimises Foxconn’s abuse of student labour 138–139
archives:
Mann Act investigative case files 184–187;
as political spaces 185
Ateljevic, I. 179
Bales, Kevin 6, 7, 26, 28, 193–194
Bellagio-Harvard Guidelines on the Legal Parameters of Slavery 85
Benin:
bias and politics in NGOs and forced labour research 102–104
Billington-Grieg, Theresa 191, 192
Blomfield, Paul 64
Bradley, Karen 178
Brazil:
definitions of forced labour 49;
National Pact for the Eradication of Slave Labor 50;
Slave Labour in Brazil Digital Observatory 39;
sugar cane sector 50–51
Bribery Act 2010, project assessing impact of Modern Slavery Act and, on UK companies 156–159
Brunner, Jessie 10
business dynamics that facilitate use of forced labour 3, 8, 26, 27, 33, 34
business models 28, 29, 31–32
Caruana, Robert 169, 184
causes of forced labour, understanding 9–10, 56
Centre for Social Justice 62
Chambers, R. 98, 99, 104
Chan, Jenny 11, 133, 139, 140, 143
child labour:
in cocoa industry 113n, 171, 177;
ethnocentric bias in understandings of childhood 99–100, 115;
in Indian garment industry 50;
child trafficking discourse:
adverse impact on child migration 114–115;
need to build meaning with ‘victims of trafficking’ 115 (p.201)
child trafficking on Benin–Nigeria border qualitative study:
building trust 123–124;
contradicting dominant anti-trafficking discourses 116–117;
ethical considerations 126–127;
group interviews 119–121;
informed consent 126;
interview issues 121;
interviews 117–119;
overview 116–117;
participant observation 122–124;
personal positionality 124–125;
reciprocity 126–127;
security and safety of participants 126;
witnessing collateral damage 114–115
child trafficking on Benin–Nigeria border World Bank study 117–118
childhood, understandings of 99–100, 115
China:
discrepancies between employment rights and enforcement of rights 140;
dispatch workers 139–141;
internal migrant workers 140;
Labour Contract Law 139–140;
Regulations on the Management of Vocational School Student Internships 141–142;
vocational schools 130, 131, 134, 135, 139, 141, 142;
cocoa industry, study of child slavery in 171, 177
codes of conduct, supplier 148, 157, 158, 160, 162
collateral damage 3, 72, 114–115
colonialism 60, 72, 80, 83, 89, 188
compliance transparency of DAX30 companies’ study, ratings of 159–160
Congo Free State 72
contracts, supplier 154–155
CORE 179
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 65;
accessing reports and other data 149, 150, 156, 157, 161–162, 163, 172;
difficulties in assessing reality of record on 155–156;
disclosure laws 148, 150–152
Covenant of the League of Nations 83
Crane, Andrew 3, 12, 29, 33, 34, 35, 56, 113, 148, 167, 169
criminalisation:
of human trafficking 69–70;
of modern slavery in media 175;
of sex trafficking 191
Dahan, N. 168, 171, 177
Daily Mail 173, 174, 175
Dank, M. 37
data:
accessing new 35–40;
gaps in 27–29, 30;
manipulation 46–48;
narrative power of numbers and 51, 54;
political uses of 51–54;
primary sources 35–38;
primary sources example 37–38;
secondary 39–40
data recording 121
Davies, Nick 46, 47, 49
Decent Work SMARTLAB 39
definitions of forced labour 12–14;
‘all work or service’ 81;
building on baseline 86–88;
‘extracted under a menace of a penalty’ 81–82;
ILO Forced Labour Convention 1930 13, 80–83, 89, 91;
and parameters of forced labour 48, 71;
politics of 48–50;
practical points for understanding 90;
rationale for, as a baseline understanding 88–89;
‘voluntary offer of labour’ 82–83;
what is not forced labour 83–84
definitions of sex trafficking 48–49, 191–194
definitions of slavery 85–86
Derrida, Jacques 185, 194
disclosure:
laws 52, 148, 150–152, 163;
non-financial information 151, 156, 161, 162–163;
statements 39–40, 151, 161
discourse analysis 167–182;
constructing severe labour exploitation 172–180;
constructing subjects in media texts 173–176;
historical subjects 184;
institutionalising practices through government texts 176–179;
linguistic representations 168, 169;
processes of contestation 168, 171, 177;
revealing ‘realities’ through NGO texts 179–180; (p.202)
text, conceptual and methodological status of 171–172;
understanding 168–170;
varieties of approach 170–171
dispatch workers, China 139–141
doctrinal legal research 152–153
domestic workers from overseas, in UK 64–65
Doorne, S. 179
drug dealing gangs in Chicago study 36
Dubner, Stephen 36
economic coercion and forced labour 13
Egels-Zandén, Niklas 26, 35
Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) 142
ethical considerations 36, 114, 126–127
European Court of Human Rights 81–82
‘exceptional’ cases 49, 61, 65–66, 67, 70–71
excessive overtime 87–88
exploitation and forced labour, boundaries between 13
‘extracted under a menace of a penalty’ 81–82
Fair Labor Association (FLA) 138–139
Fairclough, N. 169, 171, 172, 173
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 185;
Mann Act investigative case files 186–187
fishing industry in New Zealand study 36
focus groups 119–121
Forrest, Andrew 8, 46
Foucault, Michel 169, 179, 185
Foxconn Technology Group student internship programme 130, 131, 132–133, 134–135, 136, 137;
Apple tacitly legitimises abuse of student labour 138–139;
disconnect between students’ majors and internships at 134–136;
Fair Labor Association (FLA) findings 138;
forced internships 137–139;
interns as cheap labour 137, 139;
shift lengths 135;
size of summer 2010 134;
students on realities of internships at 135, 136, 138;
teachers’ roles and incentives 137–138;
workplace suicides 132–133
Free the Slaves 6–7
Free the Slaves (FTS) project on child slavery in gold mining sector 94–109;
bias and politics in research 102–104;
blurring of boundaries and conflation of terminology 103–104;
critical reflections on research 96–102;
distorting or ignoring of empirical findings 101–102, 103;
dominant international discourse of childhood disagreed with by local community 99–100;
implicit assumption of superiority of researchers 100–101, 102–103;
methodology and data collection 96;
participatory research 98–101;
personal positionality of researchers 96–97, 103;
privileging of mainstream discourse over local voices 98–101, 104;
reinforcing of unfounded assumptions of child slavery 102, 103;
sources of data 95–96;
uncritical application of popular discourses and definitions, problems with 97–98;
vested interests in distortion of empirical findings 103, 104
Freedom of Information Act 2000 149, 155
Gallagher, Anne 8, 46, 47, 69, 97
garment industry, India 50
geographic configurations of supply chains 34
Germany:
legal environment and regulation of companies 161;
non-financial information disclosures 151;
rating of compliance transparency of DAX30 companies’ study 159–160
Gittens, M. 168, 171, 177
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women 3 (p.203)
Global North/South divide of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ states 67–69, 71–72
Global Slavery Index (GSI) 1–2, 8–9, 46, 47, 53, 55, 102, 113
Gomes, A. 49
governance structures of supply chains 34, 38
government:
data 39, 55;
texts, institutionalising practices of modern slavery 176–179
group interviews 119–121
The Guardian 175–176
Haffner-Burton, Emilie 67–68
Hardy, C. 170, 171, 173, 176
history, concepts of 183–184
Hoecke, M. van 153
Honda strike 133
Hoover, J. Edgar 186
Howard, Neil 3, 72, 113, 115, 117
human rights 67–68, 71, 90
Immigration Act 2016 64
impression management 124
indentured servitude 79–80
The Independent 173–174
India, garment industry 50
indicators of forced labour 87–88
informed consent 126
institutional context of supply chains 34–35
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 82;
definition of slavery 85–86
inter-textuality 172, 173
International Labour Organization Forced Labour Convention 1930:
definition of forced labour 13, 80–83, 89, 91;
Protocol of 2014 to 84, 92;
repeal of ‘transitional provisions’ 83–84
International Labour Organization:
estimates on victims of forced labour 9;
Indicators of Forced Labour 87–88;
scaling up data from national to global level 55;
tripartite system of governance 88–89
interpreters, working through 121–122
interviews 117–119;
advantages over survey data 117–118;
data recording 121;
issues with 121–122;
‘person-centred’ approach 119;
semi-structured 119;
triangulation 118–119;
working through an interpreter 121–122
‘It Happens Here’ 62
Joseph Rowntree Foundation 180
Kara, Siddharth 6, 27, 28
Kelley, Judith 47, 69–70
Kielland, A. 113, 116, 117, 118
Labour Contract Law, China 139–140
law enforcement, target setting 52
LeBaron, Genevieve 3, 9, 13, 52, 65, 73, 148, 156
Lederer, Rob 142
legal research on companies 148–166;
challenges of researching business policies 154–156;
emerging field of disclosure laws on CSR issues 150–152;
recommendations for empirical research on business policies 162–163;
research methods 152–154;
research projects despite challenges 156–162
legislation:
criminalising human trafficking 69–70;
narrowly targeting ‘exceptional’ incidents 65, 70;
transparency 52, 148, 150–152, 163
Levitt, Steven 36
Locke, R. 26, 34, 152
mandate system 83
Mann Act 1910 184;
investigative case files 184–187
May, Theresa 62, 63, 65
media texts, constructing subjects in 173–176
methodological challenges in researching forced labour 12–15
Modern Slavery Act 2015 52, 61–66;
foreword 178–179;
and government’s desire not to intervene in business dealings with labour markets 177–178;
project assessing impact of Bribery Act and, on UK companies 156–159; (p.204)
transparency in supply chain clause 151, 152;
weak company reporting requirements 152
modern slavery literature 6–8, 9, 193–194
‘modern slaves’, discourse analysis of:
constructing subjects through media texts 173–176;
institutionalising practices through government texts 176–179;
revealing ‘realities’ in NGO texts 179–180
Mullings, Beverley 124
multinational corporations (MNCs):
disclosure statements on forced labour 39–40;
emphasis on 25–26;
victims of forced labour suing 25
National Pact for the Eradication of Slave Labor, Brazil 50
National Referral Mechanism (NRM) 52–53
Neu, Dean 35
Nevsun 25
new slavery literature 6–8, 9, 193–194
New York Times 8
New Zealand:
fishing industry study 36;
tourism representations study 179
Nigeria:
non-financial information disclosures 151, 156, 161, 162–163
non-governmental organisations (NGOs):
bias and politics in research 102–104;
revealing ‘realities’ of severe labour exploitation through texts of 179–180 see also Free the Slaves (FTS) project on child slavery in gold mining sector
numbers of victims of forced labour, estimated 7, 9
numbers, politics of 44–58;
narrative power of numbers 51;
political uses of data 51–54;
politics of quantification 46–51;
susceptible to speculation, distortion and fabrication 45;
trend to privilege quantitative data over qualitative data 44–45, 57, 114;
‘what is counted’ 46–50;
‘where you look’ 50–51
Okyere, Sam 10
Ouensavi, R. 116, 117, 118
overseas domestic workers in UK 64–65
overtime, excessive 87–88
Palermo Protocol 191, 194
participant observation 122–124
Participatory Development Associates (PDA) 95, 96–102
participatory research 98–101
perpetrators:
business models 28, 29, 31–32;
media texts constructing 174;
profits 28, 31;
as a source of data 30, 35–36
personal positionality of researcher 96–97, 98, 103, 124–125
Phillips, Nicola 3, 4, 11, 13, 26, 29, 33, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 56, 57, 151, 170, 171, 173, 176, 190, 192
Plant, Roger 49
Pliley, Jessica 184, 187, 188, 191, 193
political:
challenges in researching forced labour 11–12;
control, quantification of data as an instrument of 51–53;
economic root causes of forced labour 2, 3, 9–10
politics of numbers see numbers, politics of
primary sources of data 35–38
profits 28, 31
prostitution 183, 184, 188, 189–190;
in 19th-century England 187, 188, 191;
border controls and identifying of 190–191;
regulation of 188;
white slavery and definitions of 192 see also sex trafficking; sex trafficking in early 20th-century America
Protocol of 2014 to Forced Labour Convention 84, 92
public–private law divide 154–155
qualitative data, trend to privilege quantitative data over 44–45, 57, 114
qualitative legal research 153
qualitative research project, child-trafficking on Benin–Nigeria border:
building trust 123–124; (p.205)
contradicting dominant anti-trafficking discourses 116–117;
ethical considerations 126–127;
group interviews 119–121;
informed consent 126;
interview issues 121;
interviews 117–119;
overview 116–117;
participant observation 122–124;
personal positionality 124–125;
reciprocity 126–127;
security and safety of participants 126;
witnessing collateral damage 114–115
quantification:
in international politics 53;
and political control 51–53;
politics of 46–51;
‘seduction’ of 187;
trend to privilege, over qualitative data 44–45, 57, 114
quantitative legal research 153
Quirk, Joel 7, 8, 9, 62, 65, 71, 72, 97, 167, 170, 176, 183, 194
reciprocity 126–127
reflective partisanship 102
regulation of companies:
different approaches in Germany and UK 161;
transparent 52, 148, 150–152, 156, 163
Regulations on the Management of Vocational School Student Internships, China 141–142
representation, politics of 127
research, forced labour:
accessing new data 35–40;
cutting-edge 3–4;
emergence and evolution of 5–11;
gaps in data 27–29, 30;
legal research methods and 152–154;
methodological challenges in advancing 12–15;
political challenges in advancing 11–12, 54–57;
scaling up from national to global level 54–56;
trend to privilege quantitative data over qualitative data 44–45, 57, 114
researchers:
personal positionality 96–97, 98, 103, 124–125;
reflective partisanship 102
Roe, Clifford 192, 193
Rühmkorf, Andreas 52, 151, 156
scaling up of research from national to global level 54–56
secondary data 39–40
security and safety of participants 126
sex economy study 36–37
sex trafficking:
debate on parameters of, and distortion of incidence of 48–49;
definitions 48–49;
manipulation of data 47, 48
sex trafficking in 19th- and early 20th-century England 187, 188, 191
sex trafficking in early 20th-century America 183–199;
anti-trafficking activism 184–185, 187–188, 190, 191, 193–194;
archives of Mann Act investigative case files 184–187;
challenges of researching 184, 189;
contesting numbers 187–191;
identifying women who sold sex at borders 190–191;
leading to border controls 184–185, 190, 191;
media reports 189;
problems of definition 191–194;
racialised readings of 192, 193;
regulation regimes 188;
statistical surveys 189;
uncritical use of slavery analogy 192–193, 194;
unreliable estimates on numbers involved 189–190
Simmons, Beth 36, 68, 69–70
Slave Labour in Brazil Digital Observatory 39
slavery:
definitions 85–86;
distinction between forced labour and 86;
relationship with forced labour 84–85
Slavery Convention 1926 85
Social Support Foundation (SSF) 95, 96–102
socio-legal research 153
Stead, W.T. 187
Stoler, Ann Laura 185, 186, 187, 188
Stringer, C. 36
student internships in China 130–131;
disconnect between students’ majors and 134–136;
entrepreneurial role of teachers in 138, 141;
forced 137–139;
Labour Contract Law 139–140;
labour dispatch of 139–141;
labour informalisation and 132–133;
legal status of interns 131;
letter from (p.206) schools to parents outlining alleged advantages 135–136;
offering cheap labour 137, 139;
overview of study 131–132;
regulation 141–142;
students on realities of internships at Foxconn 135, 136, 138;
taking part in Honda strike 133
sugar cane sector in Brazil 50–51
supplier:
codes of conduct 148, 157, 158, 160, 162;
contracts 154–155;
terms and conditions for 39, 148, 157, 158, 162
supply chains:
accessing data 148–149, 150, 154–156, 157, 160, 161–162, 163;
addressing forced labour and bribery in global 156–159;
data gaps 29;
emphasis on MNCs at top of 25–26;
and freedom of information requests 155;
geographic configurations 34;
governance structures 34, 38;
institutional context 34–35;
labour 33;
product 33;
rating of compliance transparency of DAX30 companies’ study 159–160;
regulation through transparency 150–152;
structure of 155–156;
tea 37–38;
understanding 32–35
surveys, limitations of 117–118
target setting 51–52
tea supply chain, forced labour in 37–38
The Telegraph 174
terms and conditions for suppliers 39, 148, 157, 158, 162
texts:
conceptual and methodological status of 171–172;
constructing subjects in media 173–176;
institutionalising practices through government texts 176–179;
revealing ‘realities’ of severe labour exploitation through NGO 179–180
TISCREPORT 39–40, 161
tourism representations in New Zealand, study of 179
Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report 53, 67–73, 102
Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000 53
triangulation 37, 40, 118–119
Trump, Donald 72
trust, building 123–124
UN Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) 113
UN Sustainable Development Goals 46
United States Department of Labor’s Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking 39
Unseen 62
Venkatesh, Sudhir 36
vocational schools, China 130, 131, 134, 135, 139, 141, 142
‘voluntary offer of labour’ 82–83
Walk Free Foundation 1, 8, 46, 47, 68, 113, 193
Wallis, Andrew 62, 63
war on terror 73
‘what is counted’, politics of 46–50
‘where you look’, politics of 50–51
White Slave Traffic Act 1910 see Mann Act 1910
white slavery 183, 184;
definitional problem 191, 192;
racialised readings of 192, 193;
World Bank study of Benin–Nigeria border child migration 117–118
Yea, S. 102, 103
Zhang, Lu 94, 132, 140